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Id, ego and super-ego

Id, ego and super-ego
Although the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are purely symbolic concepts about the mind and do not correspond to actual somatic structures of the brain (such as the kind dealt with by neuroscience). The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud's thought: the "structural model" (which succeeded his "economic model" and "topographical model") was first discussed in his 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle and was formalized and elaborated upon three years later in his The Ego and the Id. Freud's proposal was influenced by the ambiguity of the term "unconscious" and its many conflicting uses. Id[edit] According to Freud the id is unconscious by definition: In the id, "contrary impulses exist side by side, without cancelling each other out. ... Developmentally, the id precedes the ego; i.e., the psychic apparatus begins, at birth, as an undifferentiated id, part of which then develops into a structured ego.

Anima and animus Jungian theory In Jung's theory, the anima makes up the totality of the unconscious feminine psychological qualities that a man possesses and the animus the masculine ones possessed by a woman. He did not believe they were an aggregate of father or mother, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, or teachers, though these aspects of the personal unconscious can influence a person's anima or animus. Origin[edit] Anima and Animus A natural understanding of another member of the opposite sex is instilled in individuals that stems from constant subjection to members of the opposite sex. Anima[edit] Anima originated from Latin, and was originally used to describe ideas such as breath, soul, spirit or vital force. Animus[edit] Animus originated from Latin, where it was used to describe ideas such as the rational soul, life, mind, mental powers, courage or desire.[4] In the early nineteenth century, animus was used to mean "temper" and was typically used in a hostile sense. Eve[edit] Helen[edit] Mary[edit]

Pleasure principle (psychology) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Instinctual seeking of pleasure Pleasure/unpleasure principle Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (/frɔɪd/;[2] German pronunciation: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏ̯t]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881,[3] and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital.[4] Upon completing his habilitation in 1895, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology in the same year and became an affiliated professor (professor extraordinarius) in 1902.[5][6] Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychotherapy, within some areas of psychiatry, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.[10] Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture.

Hieros gamos The notion of hieros gamos does not always presuppose literal sexual interaction in ritual, but is also used in purely symbolic or mythological context, notably in alchemy and hence in Jungian psychology. Hinduism[edit] Ancient Near East[edit] Sacred prostitution was common in the Ancient Near East[1] as a form of "Sacred Marriage" or hieros gamos between the king of a Sumerian city-state and the High Priestess of Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of love, fertility and warfare. Greek mythology[edit] Tantric Buddhism[edit] In Tantric Buddhism of Nepal, Bhutan, India and Tibet, yab-yum is a ritual of the male deity in union with a female deity as his consort. Maithuna is a Sanskrit term used in Tantra most often translated as sexual union in a ritual context. The symbolism of union and polarity is a central teaching in Tantric Buddhism, especially in Tibet. Alchemy and Jungian psychology[edit] The hieros gamos is one of the themes that Carl Jung dealt with in his book Symbols of Transformation.

Alternative five model of personality The alternative five model of personality is based on the claim that the structure of human personality traits is best explained by five broad factors called impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS),[note 1] neuroticism–anxiety (N-Anx), aggression–hostility (Agg-Host), sociability (Sy), and activity (Act).[2] The model was developed by Marvin Zuckerman and colleagues as a rival to the well-known Five factor model of personality traits and is based on the assumption that "basic" personality traits are those with a strong biological-evolutionary basis.[3] One of the salient differences between these two models is that the alternative five model lacks any equivalent to the dimension called openness to experience in the five factor model. Development of the model[edit] The aim of Zuckerman and colleagues in developing the alternative five model was to identify the "basic" factors of personality. Nature of the five factors[edit] Comparison with other personality models[edit] Notes[edit]

Locus of control In personality psychology, locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Understanding of the concept was developed by Julian B. Rotter in 1954, and has since become an aspect of personality studies. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events in their life derive primarily from their own actions: for example, when receiving test results, people with an internal locus of control would tend to praise or blame themselves and their abilities, whereas people with an external locus of control would tend to praise or blame an external factor such as the teacher or the test.[2] Locus of control has generated much research in a variety of areas in psychology, and the construct is applicable to such fields as educational psychology, health psychology and clinical psychology. History[edit] Locus of control is the framework of Rotter's (1954) social-learning theory of personality. Measuring scales[edit]

Eros In Greek mythology, Eros (, ;[2] Ancient Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire") is the Greek god of love and sex. His Roman counterpart was Cupid ("desire").[3] Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares and, with some of his siblings, was one of the Erotes, a group of winged love gods. In some traditions, he is described as one of the primordial gods. Etymology[edit] The Greek ἔρως, meaning "desire," comes from ἔραμαι "to desire, love", of uncertain etymology. R. Cult and depiction[edit] Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises. A cult of Eros existed in pre-classical Greece, but it was much less important than that of Aphrodite. Primordial god[edit] Homer does not mention Eros. At the beginning there was only Chaos, Night (Nyx), Darkness (Erebus), and the Abyss (Tartarus). Son of Aphrodite and Ares[edit] [Hera addresses Athena:] “We must have a word with Aphrodite. Eros and Psyche[edit] Eros in art[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] ^ A. References[edit]

Psychology of self The psychology of self is the study of either the cognitive, conative or affective representation of one's identity or the subject of experience. The earliest formulation of the self in modern psychology derived from the distinction between the self as I, the subjective knower, and the self as Me, the object that is known.[1] Current views of the self in psychology position the self as playing an integral part in human motivation, cognition, affect, and social identity.[2] It may be the case that we can now usefully attempt to ground experience of self in a neural process with cognitive consequences, which will give us insight into the elements of which the complex multiply situated selves of modern identity are composed. Kohut's formulation[edit] Heinz Kohut[4] initially proposed a bipolar self compromising two systems of narcissistic perfection: 1) a system of ambitions and, 2) a system of ideals. Winnicott's selves[edit] D. Berne's transactional analysis[edit] Memory and the self[edit]

Bobo doll experiment The Bobo doll experiment was the collective name of the experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 studying children's behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll. There are different variations of the experiment. The most notable experiment measured the children's behaviour after seeing the model get rewarded, punished or experience no consequence for beating up the bobo doll. This experiment is the empirical demonstration of Bandura's social learning theory. The Bobo doll[edit] Bobo doll A Bobo doll is an inflatable toy that is about 5 feet tall and is usually made of a soft durable vinyl or plastic. Experiment in 1961[edit] Method[edit] The participants in this experiment (Bandura, Ross & Ross 1961) were 36 boys and 36 girls from the Stanford University nursery school. For the experiment, each child was exposed to the scenario individually, so as not to be influenced or distracted by classmates. Results[edit] Criticism[edit] Variation 1:

The Jungian Model of the Psyche | Journal Psyche Few people have had as much influence on modern psychology as Carl Jung; we have Jung to thank for concepts like extroversion and introversion, archetypes, modern dream analysis, and the collective unconscious. Psychological terms coined by Jung include the archetype, the complex, synchronicity, and it is from his work that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was developed, a popular staple of personality tests today. Among Jung’s most important work was his in-depth analysis of the psyche, which he explained as follows: “By psyche I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious,” separating the concept from conventional concept of the mind, which is generally limited to the processes of the conscious brain alone. Jung believed that the psyche is a self-regulating system, rather like the body, one that seeks to maintain a balance between opposing qualities while constantly striving for growth, a process Jung called “individuation”. The ego Complexes

Authenticity (philosophy) One of the greatest problems facing such abstract approaches is that the drives people call the "needs of one's inner being" are diffuse, subjective and often culture bound. For this reason among others, authenticity is often "at the limits" of language; it is described as the negative space around inauthenticity, with reference to examples of inauthentic living.[1] Sartre's novels are perhaps the easiest access to this mode of describing authenticity: they often contain characters and antiheroes who base their actions on external pressures—the pressure to appear to be a certain kind of person, the pressure to adopt a particular mode of living, the pressure to ignore one's own moral and aesthetic objections in order to have a more comfortable existence. His work also includes characters who do not understand their own reasons for acting, or who ignore crucial facts about their own lives in order to avoid uncomfortable truths; this connects his work with the philosophical tradition.

Albert Bandura Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925) is a psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University. For almost six decades, he has been responsible for contributions to many fields of psychology, including social cognitive theory, therapy and personality psychology, and was also influential in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. He is known as the originator of social learning theory and the theoretical construct of self-efficacy, and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment. A 2002 survey ranked Bandura as the fourth most-frequently cited psychologist of all time, behind B. F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Jean Piaget, and as the most cited living one.[1] Bandura is widely described as the greatest living psychologist,[2][3][4][5] and as one of the most influential psychologists of all time.[6][7] Personal life[edit] Bandura arrived in the US in 1949 and was naturalized in 1956.