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Hallucinogen

Hallucinogen
Hallucinogens are a general group of pharmacological agents that can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. These classes of psychoactive drugs have in common that they can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness. Unlike other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids, these drugs do not merely amplify familiar states of mind, but rather induce experiences that are qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. These experiences are often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, meditation, dreams, or insanity. L. E. in proportion to other effects, changes in thought, perception, and mood should predominate;intellectual or memory impairment should be minimal;stupor, narcosis, or excessive stimulation should not be an integral effect;autonomic nervous system side effects should be minimal; andaddictive craving should be absent. Nature of the drugs[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallucinogen

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Entheogen A group of peyotes, in cultivation. Peyote has been used in ritual contexts for thousands of years.[1][2][3] With the advent of organic chemistry, there now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from these plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine, ergine, and muscimol, respectively. Semi-synthetic (e.g. LSD used by the New American Church) and synthetic drugs (e.g.

Magic (paranormal) Magic or sorcery is an attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, actions, gestures and language.[1][2][3][4] Modern Western magicians generally state magic's primary purpose to be personal spiritual growth.[5] Modern theories of magic may see it as the result of a universal sympathy where some act can produce a result somewhere else, or as a collaboration with spirits who cause the effect.[6] The belief in and the practice of magic has been present since the earliest human cultures and continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today.[7][8] Magic is often viewed with suspicion by the wider community, and is sometimes practiced in isolation and secrecy.[4] The word "magic" derives via Latin magicus from the Greek adjective magikos (μαγικός) used in reference to the "magical" arts of the Persian Magicians (Greek: magoi, singular mágos, μάγος), the Zoroastrian astrologer priests of the ancient Persian Empire.

Dissociative Classes of dissociatives[edit] NMDA receptor antagonists[edit] κ-opioid receptor agonists[edit] Effects[edit] Brain This article compares the properties of brains across the entire range of animal species, with the greatest attention to vertebrates. It deals with the human brain insofar as it shares the properties of other brains. The ways in which the human brain differs from other brains are covered in the human brain article. Several topics that might be covered here are instead covered there because much more can be said about them in a human context. The most important is brain disease and the effects of brain damage, covered in the human brain article because the most common diseases of the human brain either do not show up in other species, or else manifest themselves in different ways. Anatomy[edit]

Michael Persinger Michael A. Persinger (born June 26, 1945) is a cognitive neuroscience researcher and university professor with over 200 peer-reviewed publications. He has worked at Laurentian University, located in Sudbury, Ontario, since 1971. He is primarily notable for his experimental work in the field of neurotheology, work which has been increasingly criticized in recent years.[1][3][4][5][6] Early life[edit] Research and academic work[edit]

Retreat (spiritual) The meaning of a spiritual retreat can be different for different religious communities. Spiritual Retreats are an integral part of many Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and Sufi (Islamic) communities. In Hinduism and Buddhism, Meditative Retreats are seen by some as integral for reconnection to one's self. Retreats are also popular in Christian churches, and were established in today's form by St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), in his Spiritual Exercises. Ignatius was later to be made patron saint of spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922. Psychedelic drug LSD is widely known as a psychedelic drug and often features psychedelic artwork on its blotters A psychedelic substance is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and perception. Psychedelics are part of a wider class of psychoactive drugs known as hallucinogens, a class that also includes structurally unrelated substances such as dissociatives and deliriants. Unlike other drugs such as stimulants and opioids which induce familiar states of consciousness, psychedelics tend to affect and explore the mind in ways that result in the experience being qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. The psychedelic experience is often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, meditation, yoga, religious ecstasy, dreaming and even near-death experiences.

Psychoactive drug An assortment of psychoactive drugs—street drugs and medications: Psychoactive substances often bring about subjective (although these may be objectively observed) changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find rewarding and pleasant (e.g. euphoria or a sense of relaxation) or advantageous (e.g. increased alertness) and are thus reinforcing. Substances which are both rewarding and positively reinforcing have the potential to induce a state of addiction – compulsive drug use despite negative consequences – when used consistently in excess. In addition, sustained use of some substances may produce a physical dependence or psychological dependence syndrome associated with somatic or psychological-emotional withdrawal states respectively. Drug rehabilitation aims to break this cycle of dependency, through a combination of psychotherapy, support groups, maintenance and even other psychoactive substances. History[edit]

Kathleen Harrison Vault Kathleen Harrison is an ethnobotanist, artist, and photographer who researches the relationship between plants and people, with a particular focus on art, myth, ritual, and spirituality. Harrison teaches in Hawaii, California, and the Peruvian Amazon. She has done fieldwork in Latin America for 30 years, and is the President and Projects Director of Botanical Dimensions, a non-profit foundation devoted to preserving medicinal and shamanic plant knowledge from the Amazonian rainforest and tropics around the world. Harrison co-founded the organization in 1985 with former husband, the late Terence McKenna. In her work with Botanical Dimensions, she has done fieldwork and supported indigenous projects in Mexico, Peru, Ecuador and Costa Rica. Harrison is a popular lecturer at conferences, seminars, and workshops; she continues to document the many faces of ethnobotany with photographs, which she combines with stories in her slide presentations.

Dream Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tend to be much less vivid or memorable.[3] The length of a dream can vary; they may last for a few seconds, or approximately 20–30 minutes.[3] People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase. The average person has three to five dreams per night, but some may have up to seven dreams in one night.[4] The dreams tend to last longer as the night progresses.

Deliriant Deliriants are a class of hallucinogen. The term was introduced by David F. Duncan and Robert S. Marsh Chapel Experiment The rose window above the altar at Boston University's Marsh Chapel The Marsh Chapel Experiment, also called the "Good Friday Experiment," was a 1962 experiment conducted on Good Friday at Boston University's Marsh Chapel. Walter N. Pahnke, a graduate student in theology at Harvard Divinity School, designed the experiment under the supervision of Timothy Leary and the Harvard Psilocybin Project.[1] Pahnke's experiment investigated whether psilocybin (the active principle in psilocybin mushrooms) would act as a reliable entheogen in religiously predisposed subjects.[2]

Kathleen Harrison Vault : Kat Harrison, Botanical Dimensions, and the Shamanic Plant Mind Since the introduction of shamanic plants and medicines to Western science, many anthropologists and laboratory wizards have struggled to divine their cultural significance and figure out how they work their peculiar magic. Yet, in spite of all the work done in university laboratories, sterile hospitals, and million-dollar pharmaceutical research wings, conventional science has done little to unravel the ancient mysteries of shamanic healing power. Divorced from traditional contexts, shamanic folk medicines and visionary practices have remained a mystery.

Melancholia In a modern context, "melancholy" applies only to the mental or emotional symptoms of depression or despondency; historically, "melancholia" could be physical as well as mental, and melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause rather than by their properties.[3] History[edit] Hippocrates is considered the first physician to describe melancholia or depression, clinically.[4][5]

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