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Coordinates: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; /ˈneɪtoʊ/ NAY-toh; French: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN)), also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the 11 September 2001 attacks,[6] after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF. History Beginnings The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949 and was ratified by the United States that August. Cold War The German Bundeswehr provided the largest element of the allied land forces guarding the frontier in Central Europe. Related:  One World Government

International Security Assistance Force ISAF was initially charged with securing Kabul and surrounding areas from the Taliban, al Qaeda and factional warlords, so as to allow for the establishment of the Afghan Transitional Administration headed by Hamid Karzai.[3] In October 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the expansion of the ISAF mission throughout Afghanistan,[4] and ISAF subsequently expanded the mission in four main stages over the whole of the country.[5] From 2006 to 2011, ISAF had been involved in increasingly more intensive combat operations in southern and eastern Afghanistan. Troop contributors include from the United States, United Kingdom, NATO member states and a number of other countries. The intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varies greatly, with the United States sustaining the largest numbers of casualties in intensive combat operations, but with other contributors, especially the United Kingdom, Canada, and Denmark, sustaining relatively higher rates of casualties. History[edit]

Combined Federated Battle Laboratories Network The Combined Federated Battle Laboratories Network (CFBLNet) is a laboratory environment which utilizes a distributed Wide Area Network (WAN) as the vehicle to experiment with new capabilities by conducting Research and Development, Trials and Assessment (RDT&A) on command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) initiatives. Since 2010, CFBLNet has 13 full members: The United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (the 'Five Eyes'), France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Italy (all NATO members), the NATO organization and Sweden.[1] Network structure[edit] The CFBLNet consists of a distributed and integrated network architecture of Combined, Joint, and Military Service infrastructure components (networks, database servers, application servers, client workstations, etc.). The U.S. History[edit] The CFBLNet grew out the network designed to support the U.S. References[edit] External links[edit]

1921 Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American nonprofit, nonpartisan membership organization, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs. The CFR is considered to be the nation's "most influential foreign-policy think tank".[1] Its membership has included senior politicians, more than a dozen Secretaries of State, CIA directors, bankers, lawyers, professors, and senior media figures. The CFR regularly convenes meetings at which government officials, global business leaders and prominent members of the intelligence/foreign-policy community discuss major international issues. The CFR was founded in 1921 and is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C.. History[edit] Origins[edit] Elihu Root, a powerful corporate lawyer who served as Secretary of State, Secretary of War, and U.S. Cold War era[edit] Dwight D. Vietnam created a rift within the organization. Current status[edit] Mission[edit] Membership[edit]

Salmon P. Chase Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and the 23rd Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States. Early life and education[edit] Chase was born in Cornish, New Hampshire, to Janet Ralston and Ithamar Chase, who died in 1817 when Salmon was nine years old. Entrance into politics[edit] In 1830 Chase moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he quickly gained a position of prominence at the bar. He worked initially with the American Sunday School Union and began defending fugitive slaves. For his defense of escaped slaves seized in Ohio under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793, Chase was dubbed the Attorney General for Fugitive Slaves. The Free Soil movement[edit] Chase drafted the Free-Soil platform, and it was chiefly through his influence that Van Buren was their nominee for President in 1848. Secretary of the Treasury[edit]

Pulling the Teeth of the Tiger | Pundit Extracting information on military operations in Afghanistan from the New Zealand Defence Force is difficult at the best of times. The Christmas Eve NZSAS raid on the business premises of the Afghan Tiger Group in Kabul last year was not one of NZDF’s best times... The so-called “combined forces” Christmas raid on the head quarters of the Kabul company that supplies vehicles to the U.S. military seems to have been a messy operation from start to finish. It went something like this. International Security Assistance Force headquarters received credible intelligence that a bomb attack on the U.S. The Afghan Crisis Response Unit being mentored by our SAS was called out, and the Kabul police were alerted. Here in New Zealand, we remained blissfully ignorant of the whole schermozzle – until Jon Stephenson stirred the pot last May with his Metro article “Eyes Wide Shut”. What Jones did not mention was the uproar that the shooting of civilians in the raid caused in Kabul.

NATO CRONOS Crisis Response Operations in NATO Operating Systems (CRONOS) is a system of interconnected computer networks used by NATO to transmit classified information. It provides NATO Secret level operations, with access to NATO intelligence applications and databases. As of 1999, a wide area network of NT computers used in NATO in Europe.[1] CRONOS provides e-mail, the Microsoft Office Suite, etc.[2] It provides informal messaging (e-mail) and information sharing within the NATO community.[3] There is no connectivity between CRONOS and any US network or with the coalition wide area network.[4] See also[edit] SIPRNet - U.S. References[edit] External links[edit]

1973 Trilateral Commission The Trilateral Commission is a non-governmental, non-partisan discussion group founded by David Rockefeller[1] in July 1973, to foster closer cooperation among North America, Western Europe, and Japan. History[edit] Founding[edit] Sensing a profound discord among the nations of North America, Europe and Japan, the Trilateral Commission was founded to foster substantive political and economic dialogue across the world. "Growing interdependence is a fact of life of the contemporary world. Zbigniew Brzezinski, United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981, and a professor at Columbia University and Rockefeller advisor who was a specialist on international affairs, left his post at the time to organize the group along with:[3] Henry D. Other founding members included Alan Greenspan and Paul Volcker, both later heads of the Federal Reserve system. Meetings[edit] The Trilateral Commission initiated its biannual meetings schedule in October 1973 in Tokyo.

Large denominations of United States currency Overview and history[edit] High-denomination currency was prevalent from the very beginning of U.S. Government issue (1860). Interest-bearing notes of $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000 were issued in 1861, and $5,000 and $10,000 United States Notes were released in 1878. There are many different designs and types of high-denomination notes. The high-denomination bills (together with the $1 through $100 denominations) were issued in 1929 in the smaller size that remains the format to this day. $500: William McKinley, 25th U.S. The reverse designs are abstract scroll-work with ornate denomination identifiers. Although they are still technically legal tender in the United States, high-denomination bills were last printed on December 27, 1945, and officially discontinued on July 14, 1969, by the Federal Reserve System.[1] The $5,000 and $10,000 effectively disappeared well before then. $500 bill[edit] $1,000 bill[edit] $5,000 bill[edit] The $5,000 bill featured James Madison on the obverse.

World military expenditures This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year. Military expenditure figures[2] are presented in US$ based on either constant or current exchange rates. These results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of each country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next. Currently, the world's six largest military spenders are the United States, China,[3] Russia, the United Kingdom, Japan and France, all of whom are recognized as world powers. The UK, US, Russia, China and France are all veto-wielding permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The first list is based on the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Yearbook 2013 which includes a list on the world's top 15 military spenders in 2012, based on current market exchange rates. SIPRI Yearbook 2013 – World's top 15 military spenders[edit]

USBICES The United States Battlefield Information Collection and Exploitation Systems (US BICES) is an Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (OUSD/I) system that provides U.S. forces, NATO forces and other national allied military organizations with near-real-time, correlated, situation and order of battle (OB) information. This enduring capability supports threat analysis, target recommendations and, indications and warning. The US BICES system brings a fused, all-source intelligence focus to current crisis situations with the capacity to support future operations and exercises. General Dynamics IT has played a major role in helping US BICES become one of the most widely used C4I information systems among the operations and intelligence communities. To receive additional information about this program, please contact us.