Instrumentality of Mankind In the science fiction of Cordwainer Smith, the Instrumentality of Mankind refers both to Smith's personal future history and universe and to the central government of humanity. The Instrumentality of Mankind is also the title of a paperback collection of short stories by Cordwainer Smith published in 1979 (now superseded by the later The Rediscovery of Man, which collects all of Smith's short stories). Origin and history In the history of Cordwainer Smith's "Instrumentality" universe, the Instrumentality originated as the police force of the Jwindz or "perfect ones" on a post-nuclear-holocaust Earth. Characteristics Though the Instrumentality does not directly administer every planet, it claims ultimate guardianship over the destiny of the human race.
Quantum information In physics and computer science, quantum information is information that is held in the state of a quantum system. Quantum information is the basic entity that is studied in the growing field of quantum information theory, and manipulated using the engineering techniques of quantum information processing. Much like classical information can be processed with digital computers, transmitted from place to place, manipulated with algorithms, and analyzed with the mathematics of computer science, so also analogous concepts apply to quantum information. Quantum information Quantum information differs strongly from classical information, epitomized by the bit, in many striking and unfamiliar ways. Among these are the following:
Isolation tank An isolation tank is a lightless, soundproof tank inside which subjects float in salt water at skin temperature. They were first used by John C. Lilly in 1954 to test the effects of sensory deprivation. Extremely low frequency 1982 aerial view of the U.S. Navy Clam Lake, Wisconsin ELF transmitter facility, used to communicate with deeply submerged submarines. Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths from 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers. In atmospheric science, an alternative definition is usually given, from 3 Hz to 3 kHz. In the related magnetosphere science, the lower frequency electromagnetic oscillations (pulsations occurring below ~3 Hz) are considered to lie in the ULF range, which is thus also defined differently from the ITU radio bands. Alternate definitions
String theory String theory was first studied in the late 1960s as a theory of the strong nuclear force before being abandoned in favor of the theory of quantum chromodynamics. Subsequently, it was realized that the very properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. Five consistent versions of string theory were developed until it was realized in the mid-1990s that they were different limits of a conjectured single 11-dimensional theory now known as M-theory. Many theoretical physicists, including Stephen Hawking, Edward Witten and Juan Maldacena, believe that string theory is a step towards the correct fundamental description of nature: it accommodates a consistent combination of quantum field theory and general relativity, agrees with insights in quantum gravity (such as the holographic principle and black hole thermodynamics) and has passed many non-trivial checks of its internal consistency.
What is a floatation tank? - Float Tank » Floatation Tank » Isolation Tanks » Sensory Deprivation Tank What is a floatation tank? 500 kg of Epsom salts are added to 1000 litres of water, creating a 30 cm deep solution, which is heated to 35.5 degrees C (skin temperature). The temperature of the water means that once you are settled in the tank, it is virtually impossible to distinguish between parts of the body that are in contact with the water, and those that aren’t, in effect “fooling” the brain into believing that the person is floating in mid-air. Electrical grid General layout of electricity networks. Voltages and depictions of electrical lines are typical for Germany and other European systems. An electrical grid (also referred to as an electricity grid or electric grid) is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers.
Standing wave Two opposing waves combine to form a standing wave. For waves of equal amplitude traveling in opposing directions, there is on average no net propagation of energy. Moving medium As an example of the first type, under certain meteorological conditions standing waves form in the atmosphere in the lee of mountain ranges. Such waves are often exploited by glider pilots. Standing waves and hydraulic jumps also form on fast flowing river rapids and tidal currents such as the Saltstraumen maelstrom.
Workplace floatation tank schemes could reduce sick leave absence Researchers from Karlstad University in Sweden have found that flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) treatments effectively reduce stress, anxiety and depression and significantly increase optimism and sleep quality in healthy employed adults. The research article, Beneficial effects of treatment with sensory isolation in flotation-tank as a preventive health-care intervention, a randomized controlled pilot trial, was published last month in the journal BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Lack of sleep, depression and anxiety are strong contributors to sick leave absence from work. Previous research into the effects of flotation-REST has focused on individuals suffering from various ailments. The researchers wanted to investigate the effects of this therapy when used by working professionals, in order to find out if flotation-REST is a suitable method for preventing stress and stress related problems in healthy participants.
Earth's magnetic field Computer simulation of the Earth's field in a period of normal polarity between reversals. The lines represent magnetic field lines, blue when the field points towards the center and yellow when away. The rotation axis of the Earth is centered and vertical. The dense clusters of lines are within the Earth's core. The North Magnetic Pole wanders sufficiently slowly to keep ordinary compasses useful for navigation. At random intervals, however, averaging around several hundred thousand years, the Earth's field reverses and the North and South Magnetic Poles switch places. These reversals of the geomagnetic poles leave a record in rocks that allow paleomagnetists to calculate past motions of continents and ocean floors as a result of plate tectonics.
Brane cosmology Brane cosmology refers to several theories in particle physics and cosmology related to string theory, superstring theory and M-theory. Brane and bulk The central idea is that the visible, four-dimensional universe is restricted to a brane inside a higher-dimensional space, called the "bulk" (also known as "hyperspace"). If the additional dimensions are compact, then the observed universe contains the extra dimensions, and then no reference to the bulk is appropriate. In the bulk model, at least some of the extra dimensions are extensive (possibly infinite), and other branes may be moving through this bulk. Interactions with the bulk, and possibly with other branes, can influence our brane and thus introduce effects not seen in more standard cosmological models.