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Transmission Control Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol
Web browsers use TCP when they connect to servers on the World Wide Web, and it is used to deliver email and transfer files from one location to another. HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, IMAP, SSH, FTP, Telnet and a variety of other protocols are typically encapsulated in TCP. Historical origin[edit] In May 1974 the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication Network function[edit] The protocol corresponds to the transport layer of TCP/IP suite. TCP is utilized extensively by many of the Internet's most popular applications, including the World Wide Web (WWW), E-mail, File Transfer Protocol, Secure Shell, peer-to-peer file sharing, and some streaming media applications. TCP is optimized for accurate delivery rather than timely delivery, and therefore, TCP sometimes incurs relatively long delays (on the order of seconds) while waiting for out-of-order messages or retransmissions of lost messages. Reserved (3 bits) Related:  check this outInfrastructure internetinternet and packets

Anonymous dupes users into joining Megaupload attack News January 20, 2012 02:29 PM ET Computerworld - The Anonymous hacking group recruited unwitting accomplices in Thursday's attacks against U.S. government sites, a security researcher said today. The distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks began Thursday just hours after the U.S. Federal authorities shuttered and other sites, and seized assets belonging to the company, including hundreds of servers. Almost immediately, Anonymous retaliated with DDoS attacks against Justice's website, and those operated by Universal Music, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), and others. In a message on Twitter and in a blog post, Anonymous claimed Thursday's DDoS attacks were its largest ever, and said that 5,600 people collaborated in the assaults. But some of the 5,600 who participated may have done so unwittingly, said Graham Cluley, a senior technology consultant with U.K. . See more articles by Gregg Keizer.

Internet Protocol This article is about the IP network protocol only. For Internet architecture or other protocols, see Internet protocol suite. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP. The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Function[edit] The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing hosts and for routing datagrams (packets) from a source host to a destination host across one or more IP networks. Datagram construction[edit] Reliability[edit]

Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates domain names, which can be easily memorized by humans, to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of computer services and devices worldwide. The Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of most Internet services because it is the Internet's primary directory service. The Domain Name System distributes the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to IP addresses by designating authoritative name servers for each domain. The Domain Name System also specifies the technical functionality of the database service which is at its core. Function[edit] History[edit] Structure [edit] Domain name space[edit] Domain name syntax[edit] Name servers[edit]

Operation Payback Early Operation Payback flyer Background and initial attacks[edit] Media detailing the attack on Gallant Macmillian Attacks on the recording industry[edit] Law firms[edit] On 21 September 2010, the website of ACS:Law was subjected to a DDoS attack as part of Operation Payback. When the site came back online, a 350MB file which was a backup of the site was visible to anyone for a short period of time.[13] The backup, which included copies of emails sent by the firm, was downloaded and made available onto various peer-to-peer networks and websites including The Pirate Bay.[13][14][15] Some of the emails contained unencrypted Excel spreadsheets, listing the names and addresses of people that ACS:Law had accused of illegally sharing media. On 30 September, the Leesburg, VA office of Dunlap, Grubb & Weaver law firm – also doing business as the "U.S. Australian pro-copyright organization[edit] ACAPOR[edit] More attacks[edit] Musician and copyright advocate[edit] RIAA[edit] Sarah Palin[edit]

Daily | Mises Institute Libertarians often cite the internet as a case in point that liberty is the mother of innovation. Opponents quickly counter that the internet was a government program, proving once again that markets must be guided by the steady hand of the state. In one sense the critics are correct, though not in ways they understand. The internet indeed began as a typical government program, the ARPANET, designed to share mainframe computing power and to establish a secure military communications network. Of course the designers could not have foreseen what the (commercial) internet has become. In fact, the role of the government in the creation of the internet is often understated. The internet owes its very existence to the state and to state funding. During the 1960s, the RAND Corporation had begun to think about how to design a military communications network that would be invulnerable to a nuclear attack. By 1972, the number of host computers connected to the ARPANET had increased to 37.

Van Jacobson Van Jacobson in January 2006 Van Jacobson (born 1950) is an American computer scientist, renowned for his work on TCP/IP network performance and scaling.[1] He is one of the primary contributors to the TCP/IP protocol stack—the technological foundation of today’s Internet.[2] Starting in 1985 he was an adjunct lecturer in Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley. Early life and education[edit] Jacobson studied Modern Poetry, Physics, and Mathematics and received an M.S. in physics and a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Arizona.[3] He did graduate work at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.[4] Career[edit] He is the co-author of several widely used network diagnostic tools, including traceroute, tcpdump, and pathchar. Awards and memberships[edit] In 2012, Jacobson was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society.[20] References[edit] External links[edit]

Project Chanology Protesters in Guy Fawkes masks outside a Scientology center at the February 10, 2008 Project Chanology protest. The project was publicly launched in the form of a video posted to YouTube, "Message to Scientology", on January 21, 2008. The video states that Anonymous views Scientology's actions as Internet censorship, and asserts the group's intent to "expel the church from the Internet". This was followed by distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS), and soon after, black faxes, prank calls, and other measures intended to disrupt the Church of Scientology's operations. In February 2008, the focus of the protest shifted to legal methods, including nonviolent protests and an attempt to get the Internal Revenue Service to investigate the Church of Scientology's tax exempt status in the United States. Reactions from the Church of Scientology regarding the protesters' actions have varied. Background Tom Cruise video Formation Activities Internet activities Protests planned February 2008

Did Al Gore Claim He Invented the Internet? Claim: Vice-President Al Gore claimed during a news interview that he "invented" the Internet. Origins: Despite the derisive references that continue even today, former Vice-President Al Gore never claimed that he "invented" the Internet, nor did he say anything that could reasonably be interpreted that way. The "Al Gore said he 'invented' the Internet" put-downs were misleading, out-of-context distortions of something he said during an interview with Wolf Blitzer on CNN's "Late Edition" program on 1999. When asked to describe what distinguished him from his challenger for the Democratic presidential nomination, Senator Bill Bradley of New Jersey, Gore replied (in part): During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet. Al Gore was the first political leader to recognize the importance of the Internet and to promote and support its development. No one person or even small group of persons exclusively "invented" the Internet.

TCP congestion-avoidance algorithm Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) uses a network congestion-avoidance algorithm that includes various aspects of an additive increase/multiplicative decrease (AIMD) scheme, with other schemes such as slow-start to achieve congestion avoidance. The TCP congestion-avoidance algorithm is the primary basis for congestion control in the Internet.[1][2][3][4][5] Naming history[edit] Two such variations are those offered by TCP Tahoe and Reno. TCP Tahoe and Reno[edit] Congestion avoidance. Tahoe: Triple duplicate ACKS are treated the same as a timeout. Fast Recovery. Both algorithms reduce congestion window to 1 MSS on a timeout event. A frozen state is sometimes entered by both algorithms where the congestion window is set to 0 (zero). TCP Vegas[edit] Until the mid-1990s, all of TCP's set timeouts and measured round-trip delays were based upon only the last transmitted packet in the transmit buffer. TCP Vegas was deployed as default congestion control method for DD-WRT firmwares v24 SP2.[10]

Reaction to aids toddler About Pool’s Closed is a catchphrase associated with a series of raids carried out by Anonymous against the online social networking site Habbo Hotel, where members of the group formed human blockades to obstruct the entry points of popular hangouts with their avatars dressed in afros and business suits. The first raid was launched in July 2006 after rumors began to spread on 4chan that some Habbo moderators had tendencies to ban users based on the skin colors of their avatars. Origin Sometime in 2006, rumors began to spread on 4chan’s /b/ (random) board that Habbo’s social moderators were prone to racial profiling against dark-skinned avatar users and abusing their ban powers to keep them out of the site. Spread As time passed and the raids continued, the operation also became more organized and complex with detailed instructions on how to participate: July 12th, 2006 This marked a successful event and every year on the same day raiders anonymously log onto Habbo Hotel. Related Mascots