Anonymous dupes users into joining Megaupload attack News January 20, 2012 02:29 PM ET Computerworld - The Anonymous hacking group recruited unwitting accomplices in Thursday's attacks against U.S. government sites, a security researcher said today. The distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks began Thursday just hours after the U.S. Federal authorities shuttered Megaupload.com and other sites, and seized assets belonging to the company, including hundreds of servers. Almost immediately, Anonymous retaliated with DDoS attacks against Justice's website, and those operated by Universal Music, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), and others. In a message on Twitter and in a blog post, Anonymous claimed Thursday's DDoS attacks were its largest ever, and said that 5,600 people collaborated in the assaults. But some of the 5,600 who participated may have done so unwittingly, said Graham Cluley, a senior technology consultant with U.K. . See more articles by Gregg Keizer.
Internet Protocol This article is about the IP network protocol only. For Internet architecture or other protocols, see Internet protocol suite. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP. The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Function The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing hosts and for routing datagrams (packets) from a source host to a destination host across one or more IP networks. Datagram construction Reliability
Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates domain names, which can be easily memorized by humans, to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of computer services and devices worldwide. The Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of most Internet services because it is the Internet's primary directory service. The Domain Name System distributes the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to IP addresses by designating authoritative name servers for each domain. The Domain Name System also specifies the technical functionality of the database service which is at its core. Function History Structure  Domain name space Domain name syntax Name servers
RFC 675 - Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program [Docs] [txt|pdf] Network Working Group Vinton Cerf Request for Comments: 675 Yogen Dalal NIC: 2 Carl Sunshine INWG: 72 December 1974 December 1974 Version This document describes the functions to be performed by the internetwork Transmission Control Program [TCP] and its interface to programs or users that require its services. RFC 675 Specification of Internet TCP December 1974 A pair of sockets form a CONNECTION which can be used to carry data in either direction [i.e. full duplex]. RFC 675 Specification of Internet TCP December 1974 At a GATEWAY between networks, the internetwork packet is unwrapped from its local packet format and examined to determine through which network the internetwork packet should travel next. 2. 2.1 The TCP as a POST OFFICE The TCP acts in many ways like a postal service since it provides a way for processes to exchange letters with each other. RFC 675 Specification of Internet TCP December 1974 2.2 Sockets and Addressing 2.3.1 A Note on Style
Hypertext Transfer Protocol The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. The standards development of HTTP was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments (RFCs), most notably RFC 2616 (June 1999), which defined HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP most commonly used today. In June 2014, RFC 2616 was retired and HTTP/1.1 was redefined by RFCs 7230, 7231, 7232, 7233, 7234, and 7235. HTTP/2 is currently in draft form. Technical overview URL beginning with the HTTP scheme and the WWW domain name label. A web browser is an example of a user agent (UA). HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. History The first documented version of HTTP was HTTP V0.9 (1991).
Operation Payback Early Operation Payback flyer Background and initial attacks Media detailing the attack on Gallant Macmillian Attacks on the recording industry Law firms On 21 September 2010, the website of ACS:Law was subjected to a DDoS attack as part of Operation Payback. When the site came back online, a 350MB file which was a backup of the site was visible to anyone for a short period of time. The backup, which included copies of emails sent by the firm, was downloaded and made available onto various peer-to-peer networks and websites including The Pirate Bay. Some of the emails contained unencrypted Excel spreadsheets, listing the names and addresses of people that ACS:Law had accused of illegally sharing media. On 30 September, the Leesburg, VA office of Dunlap, Grubb & Weaver law firm – also doing business as the "U.S. Australian pro-copyright organization ACAPOR More attacks Musician and copyright advocate RIAA Sarah Palin
Daily | Mises Institute Libertarians often cite the internet as a case in point that liberty is the mother of innovation. Opponents quickly counter that the internet was a government program, proving once again that markets must be guided by the steady hand of the state. In one sense the critics are correct, though not in ways they understand. The internet indeed began as a typical government program, the ARPANET, designed to share mainframe computing power and to establish a secure military communications network. Of course the designers could not have foreseen what the (commercial) internet has become. In fact, the role of the government in the creation of the internet is often understated. The internet owes its very existence to the state and to state funding. During the 1960s, the RAND Corporation had begun to think about how to design a military communications network that would be invulnerable to a nuclear attack. By 1972, the number of host computers connected to the ARPANET had increased to 37.
Van Jacobson Van Jacobson in January 2006 Van Jacobson (born 1950) is an American computer scientist, renowned for his work on TCP/IP network performance and scaling. He is one of the primary contributors to the TCP/IP protocol stack—the technological foundation of today’s Internet. Starting in 1985 he was an adjunct lecturer in Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley. Early life and education Jacobson studied Modern Poetry, Physics, and Mathematics and received an M.S. in physics and a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Arizona. He did graduate work at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Career He is the co-author of several widely used network diagnostic tools, including traceroute, tcpdump, and pathchar. Awards and memberships In 2012, Jacobson was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society. References External links
RFC 793 - Transmission Control Protocol [Docs] [txt|pdf] [Errata] Updated by: 1122, 3168, 6093, 6528 INTERNET STANDARD Errata Exist RFC: 793 TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION September 1981 prepared for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Processing Techniques Office 1400 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia 22209 by Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California 4676 Admiralty Way Marina del Rey, California 90291 September 1981 Transmission Control Protocol TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ........................................................ iii 1. September 1981 Transmission Control Protocol [Page ii] September 1981 Transmission Control Protocol PREFACE This document describes the DoD Standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). RFC: 793 Replaces: RFC 761 IENs: 129, 124, 112, 81, 55, 44, 40, 27, 21, 5 TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 2.1. 2.2.
Application layer Although both models use the same term for their respective highest level layer, the detailed definitions and purposes are different. In the OSI model, the definition of the application layer is narrower in scope. The OSI model defines the application layer as the user interface responsible for displaying received information to the user. In contrast, the Internet Protocol model does not concern itself with such detail. TCP/IP protocols The IETF definition document for the application layer in the Internet Protocol Suite is RFC 1123. Remote login to hosts: TelnetFile transfer: File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)Electronic mail transport: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)Networking support: Domain Name System (DNS)Host initialization: BOOTPRemote host management: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Common Management Information Protocol over TCP (CMOT) Other protocol examples References External links