Indian history reveals more ancient civilisations Transcript VOICE-OVERBut Ashoka, after all, didn't live such a very long time ago. By 300BC, well-documented civilisations had been flourishing for thousands of years in China, in Mesopotamia and in Egypt. Could the subcontinent rival these regions in antiquity? Sarasvati River Ghaggar river flowing through Panchkula in Haryana in India. Ghaggar-Hakra River has been identified as the historic Sarasvati river by many researchers. The Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी sárasvatī nadī) is one of the main Rigvedic rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda and later Vedic and post-Vedic texts. It plays an important role in Hinduism, since Vedic Sanskrit and the first part of the Rig Veda are regarded to have originated when the Vedic people lived on its banks, 2nd millennium BCE . The goddess Sarasvati was originally a personification of this river, but later developed an independent identity. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert. Etymology Importance In the Rigveda Map of northern India in the late Vedic period Praise Course
Maurya Empire Former Indian imperial dynasty The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power based in Magadha and founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated the Indian subcontinent between 322 and 185 BCE. Comprising the majority of South Asia, the Maurya Empire was centralized by the conquest of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and its capital city was located at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The empire was the largest political entity that has existed in the Indian subcontinent, extending over 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its zenith under Ashoka. Chandragupta Maurya raised an army, with the assistance of Chanakya, author of Arthasastra, and overthrew the Nanda Empire in c. 322 BCE. Chandragupta rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India by conquering the satraps left by Alexander the Great, and by 317 BCE the empire had fully occupied northwestern India. Etymology History Founding Bindusara
Chandragupta Indian Emperor Chandragupta lived from 340-298 BCE and was the first ruler of the Mauryan Empire. He ruled from 322-298 BCE; he was the father of Emperor Bindusara and grandfather of Emperor Ashoka, who was the third Mauryan ruler and under whose reign the Mauryan Empire reached its full power and became the largest empire ever in the Indian subcontinent and one of the world's largest empires at that time. Before the time of Chandragupta, India was mostly composed of a number of small independent states, with the exception of the Magadha kingdom, a realm that controlled most of Northern India, which was ruled by the Nanda dynasty. Chandragupta began a process that would unify India for the first time in history. The Liberation of India During 326 BCE, while fighting his way into India, Alexander the Great came across the army of King Porus, the ruler of the local state of Paurava, located in modern day Punjab. The Government of Chandragupta & Imperial Expansion Abdication & Death
Ashoka the Great is for real Transcript Shot of drawing of Bodh GayaVOICE-OVERHere, for example, is the great Buddhist shrine of Bodh Gaya, which was built in the 6th or 7th century AD to mark the spot where the Lord Buddha 1,000 years before had found the solution to the problem of human suffering and sorrow. Beside the same Bodhi tree, or its direct descendant, pious kings had caused a great tower to rise above the surrounding plain. In the 11th century, the monument was restored by Buddhist monks from Burma. Then came attack by Moslem invaders from the west and the monument was abandoned. The tower began to crumble.
Google Lat Long: Zoom with a view: Visit India’s stunning monuments online (Cross-posted from the Google Asia Pacific Blog and Google India Blog) Since last year, we’ve partnered with the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and other institutions to bring a comprehensive range of India’s heritage sites online, including national icons like the Taj Mahal, Safdarjung Tomb, and the Ellora Caves. Starting today, history lovers and online explorers alike can now find new panoramic views of 31 Indian archaeological sites and monuments on Google Maps and the Google Cultural Institute. Here’s a virtual walk through of some of these stunning monuments, made possible by Street View technology: Begin your journey at the Gateway of India, a popular starting point for tourists who wish to explore bustling Mumbai, one of India's largest cities. Pan through the imagery for a closer look at the yellow basalt stone arch, covered with intricate Gujarati-influenced latticework.
Episode 2 | The Story of India - Timeline Video about Chandragupta Maurya In 320 BCE, the Nanda dynasty was overthrown by an officer in its army, Chandragupta Maurya (c. 320-298 BCE), who became the founder of the Mauryan Empire. By the end of the century, Chandragupta's empire ranged from the Himalayas to the Deccan plateau in Southern India and united the Indus and Gangetic valleys under a central administration that would thrive for 140 years. Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to Chandragupta's court, marveled at the wealth and splendor of the Mauryan capital at Pataliputra (Patna), and his portrait of the king reveals a masterful and suspicious ruler who was constantly vigilant, fearing attempts on his life. Legends of Chandragupta's life abound; some claim his family was related to the Buddha while others say that he met Alexander the Great and was imprisoned for offending him.
Maurya The Mauryas: Indian dynasty in the fourth-third centuries BCE, which unified the subcontinent for the first time and contributed to the spread of Buddhism. Alexander In the final weeks of 327 BCE, the Macedonian king Alexander the Great invaded the valley of the river Kabul, and in the next months, he conquered Taxila, defeated the Indian king Porus at the river Hydaspes, and reached the eastern border of the Punjab. He wanted to continue to the kingdom of Magadha in the Lower Ganges valley, but his soldiers refused to go any further, and Alexander was forced to go south. Many Indians now resisted the invaders. Alexander's conquests had been spectacular, but he had not conquered India. Chandragupta Chandragupta was a pupil of a famous Brahman teacher, Kautilya. When the situation in Alexander's former kingdom had stabilized, one of his successors, Seleucus, tried to reconquer the eastern territories, but the war was inconclusive, and the Macedonian offered a peace treaty to Chandragupta.
Syllabus bites exploring Asian texts banner - India Explore an interactive map of ancient India.5 The geography6 of ancient India was varied, with fertile soils and braiding rivers. Climatic conditions suited agriculture7. Hill land pastures were suitable for grazing animals and hunting in the forest provided another food source. Explore Land of the Indus8 to discover the physical features of the Indus Valley, a key cultural and religious centre of ancient India. An Introduction to Buddhism | Asian Art Museum | Education Understanding Buddhism Buddhism has deeply influenced the character and evolution of Asian civilization over the past 2,500 years. It is based on the teachings of a historical figure, Siddhartha Gautama, who lived around the fifth century BCE. As it moved across Asia, Buddhism absorbed indigenous beliefs and incorporated a wide range of imagery, both local and foreign, into its art and religious practices. Buddhism continues to evolve as a religion in many parts of the world. Buddhism is a complex subject, a philosophy that has evolved in many different ways and various regions of Asia, and is still a living faith today. Providing simple definitions for the beliefs and art historical developments of Buddhism is therefore difficult, because so many variations occur. Who was the historical Buddha? What did the historical Buddha preach? As a result of his attainment of enlightenment, the prince Siddhartha Gautama was now truly the Buddha, the Enlightened One. Life is suffering.
Ancient Indian Architecture - History of India - Quatr.us Rock-cut temples at Ajanta, India The earliest architecture that anyone knows about from India dates to about 2500 BC, in the Harappan period in northern India (modern Pakistan). The Harappans built big cities, with walls around them and public baths and warehouses and paved streets. But when Harappan civilization collapsed, about 2000 BC, almost two thousand years went by before anybody in India built a big stone building again. When Indian architects did begin to build big buildings again, about 250 BC, at first they built them of wood. Konarak temple, 1200s AD Soon after this, about 200 BC, architects began to carve Buddhist temples into the sides of cliffs, so they were taking away stone instead of building with stone. Slowly Indian architects got better at building temples. When Abbasid invaders came to India about 1100 AD, most people in northern India converted to Islam, so Indian architects built a lot of Islamic mosques, often re-using pieces of destroyed Hindu temples.
Harappan Architecture - Ancient Indian Architecture - Quatr.us Bath building at Mohenjo-Daro, 2500 BC The earliest big buildings in India were built by the Harappan people in the Indus River valley, about 2500 BC. The Harappan buildings included high brick walls around their cities to keep out enemies. Most of the buildings were ordinary houses, with rooms arranged around a small courtyard. The rulers built bigger buildings, like this public bathing house and a town warehouse for storing wheat and barley, also out of mud-brick and baked brick. Learn by doing: clay seals More Indian Architecture (the Vedic period) Bibliography and further reading about Harappan period architecture: More Indian Architecture (the Vedic period) More about Ancient India Quatr.us home Who runs Quatr.us? Karen Eva Carr, PhD. Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. The Story of Quatr.us:
Make a Clay Seal - Mesopotamia Project - Quatr.us Cylinder seal and square seal from West Asia The people of ancient Mesopotamia had many baskets which had been sealed with a special mark pressed into a lump of clay. Government officials marked their property so nobody could steal it. Their neighbors further east in India and west in Greece, from the Early Bronze Age, about 2100 BC, learned to use seals too. You can also make seals and seal things. Take a box, like a shoebox, and put something in it. Or, just put a small object inside a gob of clay, then seal it and let it dry. Now mix yours up with other people's. More about seals Bibliography and further reading about seals and sealings: Near Eastern Seals, by Dominique Collon (1991). The Chinese Chop Pack, by Robin Tzannes (2003). More about seals More fun projects Quatr.us home Who runs Quatr.us? Karen Eva Carr, PhD. More about Professor Carr's work on the Portland State University website
10 most amazing ancient rock cut structures in India | Wondermondo The historical rock cut architecture of India is of unprecedented richness and variety. Several of Indian rock cut structures belong to the most amazing achievements of ancient cultures worldwide. Below are listed 10 most amazing historical rock cut structures in India. List starts with the most amazing one - Ellora Caves and continues with somewhat less impressive ones. The last monuments in this list might be far less impressive than Ellora or Ajanta Caves but nevertheless represent an unbelievable achievement of ancient artists and artisans. 1. Ellora Caves (Maharashtra) belong to the highest achievements of mankind both regarding the engineering skills and arts. This group of 34 monasteries and temples belongs to the last great cave temples of India. Most amazing creation here is Kailasanatha (Kailash Temple). 2. There is one serious competitor to Ellora Caves - Ajanta Caves. These caves represent amazing achievement of engineering. 3. 4. The ceiling of this shrine has wooden ribs.