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The Lost Inca Empire

The Lost Inca Empire
By Liesl Clark Posted 11.01.00 NOVA "Land of the Four Quarters" or Tahuantinsuyu is the name the Inca gave to their empire. It stretched north to south some 2,500 miles along the high mountainous Andean range from Colombia to Chile and reached west to east from the dry coastal desert called Atacama to the steamy Amazonian rain forest. At the height of its existence the Inca Empire was the largest nation on Earth and remains the largest native state to have existed in the western hemisphere. The wealth and sophistication of the legendary Inca people lured many anthropologists and archaeologists to the Andean nations in a quest to understand the Inca's advanced ways and what led to their ultimate demise. The Inca's engineering of roadways and agricultural terraces in mountainous terrain was one key to the expansion of the empire. opulent wealth While some remnants of the Inca's riches remain intact, many were destroyed as looters melted them down for their raw metal. Growth of an Empire

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Mapping World Heritage 1. Introduce UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Explain to students that the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a global organization with more than 190 member countries. UNESCO encourages the identification, protection, and preservation of cultural and natural sites around the world. UNESCO has designated more than 900 places as having outstanding value to humanity, naming them World Heritage Sites.

Inca Road System Construction and Lodging The Inca road system (called Capaq Ñan in Quechua and Gran Ruta Inca in Spanish) was an essential part of the success of the Inca Empire. The road system included an astounding 40,000 kilometers (25,000 miles) of roads, bridges, tunnels and causeways. Road construction began in the mid-fifteenth century when the Inca gained control over its neighbors and started expanding its empire; it ended abruptly 125 years later when the Spanish arrived in Peru. As a contrast, the Roman Empire built twice as many miles of road, but it took them 600 years. Four Roads from Cuzco The Inca road system runs the entire length of Peru and beyond, from Ecuador to Chile and northern Argentina, a straightline distance of some 3,200 km (2,000 mi).

World History For Us All: Big Era 6 Home > The Big Eras > At the level of the human species as a whole, the most striking aspect of the period from 1400 to 1800 was the enormous extension of networks of communication and exchange that linked individuals and societies more and more tightly. Every region of the world became intricately connected to every other region, a development that we call the Great Global Convergence. Also in this era the worlds population began to move dramatically upward, breaking through the ceilings on growth that had previously governed human affairs. The Inca and Their Roads Now primarily a tourist attraction, Inca roads were once the arteries of a mighty Empire. Spanning a the continent lengthwise, the Inca road network covered approximately 22,000 miles of roads and trails with about half of that paved. They built stone surfaced roads where the terrain required it, but merely marked the way and distance on dessert or flat coastal terrain. Many miles of the Inca roads were captured from the civilizations they conquered. Some were built purely for ceremonial purposes, but the primary purpose of the roads was to hold the Empire together by providing vital arteries for communications and troop movements. The Inca Empire was less than a century old when conquered by the Spanish although Inca civilization before imperial expansion was significantly older.

World History For Us All: Big Era 7 Home > The Big Eras > The period from 1750 to 1914 was a pivotal moment in human history. Historians have named it the era of the modern revolution. Over the course of Big Era Seven change in human society became autocatalytic. Quipu - Ancient Writing System of the Incas The Inca writing system called quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo) is the only known precolumbian writing system in South America—well, perhaps writing system isn't quite the correct phrase. But quipus were clearly an information transmittal system, and not just for the Inca. Instead of a clay tablet impressed with triangles like cuneiform, or a piece of paper with symbols written on it like Egyptian hieroglyphs, a quipu is essentially a collection of wool and cotton strings tied together, a knotted page of information which could be easily transported and easily translated across the wide expanses of South America. While scholars have yet to translate the quipu, we do know that information was embedded in the quipu in a number of different ways. The strings in a quipu were dyed in many different colors, and the strings are connected in many different ways, with a wide variety and number of simple and complex knots.

Native American Cultures Across the U.S. Activity 1. Representing Native Americans Today Before offering information about Native American Nations and cultural groups, introduce the terms "Indian," "Native American," and "American Indian," and ask students what they know about these terms and about the people they represent. Create two columns on the chalkboard or a piece of paper, and write down student responses in the first column. This first column shows students' preconceptions about Indian peoples; the second column will reflect information students receive through the lesson. people Inca, also spelled Inka, South American Indians who, at the time of the Spanish conquest in 1532, ruled an empire that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from the northern border of modern Ecuador to the Maule River in central Chile. The Inca established their capital at Cuzco (Peru) in the 12th century. They began their conquests in the early 15th century and within 100 years had gained control of an Andean population of about 12,000,000 people.

Mrs Donn's Special Sections - Native Americans Books we used: American's Fascinating Indian Heritage, Reader's Digest, 1978 Indians of Yesterday by Marion E. Gridley, sponsored by the Indian Council Fire, 1940 Indians of the Americans, National Geographic Society, 1958 Indian Reservations, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Dept of the Interior, 1950 Questions on Indian Culture, by Dr. Ruth Underhill, University of Denver, Bureau of Indian Affairs, pamphlet, 1953 Dakota and Ojibwa People, Minnesota Historical Society, 1985 Regions Far and Near for a Changing World, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, 1995 Seminole Music by Frances Densmore Our thanks to:

An Overview of Inca Tech Geography Drives Technology The Incas inherited an unforgiving geographic landscape. Despite its overwhelming beauty, its various terrains held hazards and risks. The Four Quarters of the Inca kingdom stretched along a narrow band of Pacific Ocean frontage extending from Chile up to Columbia, 2500 miles long, and ranging inland from the dry coastal desert to a fingerhold on Amazonian jungle. Elevations went from sea level to 22,000 feet, and while the highest zones were not regularly lived in, some housed ceremonial structures, and many of the people lived quite well at altitudes of 15,000 feet. Deep ravines scour the jagged mountains and the flat plains, home to at-times torrential rivers and streams, making travel even more difficult.

Migration: Reasons to Move Grades 3-5 Overview: The idea for this lesson plan was inspired by Marie Loiselle of the Maharishi School in Fairfield, Iowa, who received a teacher grant from the National Geographic Education Foundation in support of a project called Geographic Learning and City Growth. Since the dawn of human evolution, humans have migrated across continents in search of food, shelter, safety, and hospitable climate. People still move for these reasons, but new reasons for human migration are arising, such as job relocation and overpopulation . This lesson will review the reasons humans move around the planet.

History for Kids: Aztecs, Maya, and Inca Back to History The three most dominant and advanced civilizations that developed in the Americas prior to the arrival of the Europeans were the Aztecs, the Maya, and the Inca. Aztecs The Aztec Empire was located in central Mexico. Migration Around the World 1. Explore National Geographic’s Atlas of the Human Journey.As a class, look at the Atlas of the Human Journey from National Geographic's Genographic Project, which shows when and where ancient humans moved around the world. Guide students through each time period on the interactive map. Examine the patterns of migration across the globe and view the text, images, and video clips presented for each time period depicted on the map. Point out that people did not move to North America until much later in history.

Inca Empire Timeline and King List Timeline and Kinglist of the Inca Empire The Inca word for ruler was 'capac', or 'capa', and the next ruler was chosen both by heredity and by marriage lines. All of the capacs were said to be descended from the legendary Ayar siblings (four boys and four girls) who emerged from the cave of Pacaritambo. The first Inca capac, the Ayar sibling Manco Capac, married one of his sisters and founded Cusco. The ruler at the height of the empire was Inca Yupanqui, who renamed himself Pachacuti (Cataclysm) and ruled between AD 1438-1471. Most scholarly reports list the date of the Inca empire as beginning with Pachacuti's rule.