LilyPond – Music notation for everyone: LilyPond... music notation for everyone 6 Open Source Software Projects of (Musical) Notation As it's been pointed out before, there seems to be a sizable overlap between open source hardware and software enthusiasts and amateur musicians. And while some of you are making music through the tried-and-true "let's see what that button does" method, there are a few of you who might be interested in composing music the old-fashioned way -- digitally producing paper-based music sheets. Whether you're writing music for the guitar, learning how to improvise jazz solos, or writing entire music scores, chances are that one of the pieces of open source software listed below can make the process a little easier. Generalized Music Notation Software If you're interested in arranging, composing, or transcribing music, these might be good resources to keep handy. Denemo: Denemo is a music notation program that lets you input music using the number pad on your keyboard and then edit it using your mouse. Guitar-Specific Notation Software Music Theory Software
Sight-reading Caravaggio's Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1594–96) Terminology Sight-reading Authors in music literature commonly use the term "sight-reading" generically for "the ability to read and produce both instrumental and vocal music at first sight ... the conversion of musical information from sight to sound" (Udtaisuk 2005). Udtaisuk and some other authors prefer the use of the more specific terms "sight-playing" and "sight-singing" where applicable. This differentiation leaves a third more restricted use of the term "sight-reading" for the silent reading of music without creating sound by instrument or voice. Highly skilled musicians can sight-read silently; that is, they can look at the printed music and hear it in their heads without playing or singing; see Audiation. The term "a prima vista" is also used, as Italian words and phrases are commonly used in music and music notation. Sight transposition Sight-playing Sight-singing Psychology Pedagogy
Music Theory for Musicians and Normal People by Toby W. Rush This page includes links to each of the individual Music Theory pages I've created in PDF form. This is a work in progress; I am writing new ones regularly and fixing errors and omissions on existing ones as I find them. If you find them useful for your theory studies, you are welcome to use them, and if you find errors or have suggestions, I invite you to contact me. Enjoy! These pages are available for free under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND license. This collection is a work in progress, but if you would prefer, you can download all the current pages as a single PDF. If this makes you excited enough that you'd like to purchase a theory-related shirt, hat, bag, button or sticker, visit my T-shirts And Other Stuff page. Music Theory Fundamentals Notation: PitchHow pitch — the "highness" or "lowness" of a sound — is notated on the musical staff. Notation: RhythmOur bizarre (yet universally accepted) method of notating rhythm. Analyzing & Writing IntervalsStill confused?
Chord (music) Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition "Promenade", is a piece showing an explicit chord progression.(Nattiez 1990, p. 218) Play In the medieval era, early Christian hymns featured organum (which used the simultaneous perfect intervals of a fourth, a fifth, and an octave), with chord progressions and harmony an incidental result of the emphasis on melodic lines during the medieval and then Renaissance (15-17th centuries). The Romantic period, the 19th century, featured increased chromaticism. Composers began to use secondary dominants in the Baroque, and they became common in the Romantic period. Many contemporary popular Western genres continue to rely on simple diatonic harmony, though far from universally: notable exceptions include the music of film scores, which often use chromatic, atonal or post-tonal harmony, and modern jazz (especially circa 1960), in which chords may include up to seven notes (and occasionally more). Macro analysis for triads on C.
Polychord Bitonal polychord: F major on top of C major. Play The use of polychords may suggest bitonality or polytonality. Polychords: Em, EbM, EbM, and DM over Dm. Play In the polychords in the image above, the 1st, "might well suggest," a thirteenth chord, the 2nd may suggest a, "d minor ninth chord with upper extensions," but the octave separation of the 3rd makes the suggestion of, "two independent triads with their a m9 apart," even more likely, and the 4th is a, "split-third chord For example G7(♯11♭9) (G-B-D-F-A♭-C♯) is formed from G major (G-B-D) and D♭ major (D♭-F-A♭), or The Lydian augmented scale, "has a polychord sound built in," created by superimposing the Caug and the Emaj ( Play ) and/or F♯dim ( Play ) triads that exist in the scale, this being, "a very common practice for most bop and post-bop players [such as McCoy Tyner] Examples of extended chords include the Elektra chord. See also Sources Jump up ^ Pen, Ronald (1992).
Quartal and quintal harmony Four note quartal chord Play . Analysis Definition Analytical difficulties One possible interpretation of a quartal chord: fourth suspension, resolving to dominant seventh and tonic 6/4 chord Play Traditional resolution of suspensions to a major triad and to a minor triad Play History Precursors At the beginning of the 20th century, fourth-based chords finally became an important element of harmony. 20th- and 21st-century classical music Composers who use the techniques of quartal harmony include Claude Debussy, Francis Poulenc, Alexander Scriabin, Alban Berg, Leonard Bernstein, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, and Anton Webern (Herder 1987, 78). Schoenberg Arnold Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony Op. 9 (1906) displays quartal harmony. Webern, Ives, and Bartók For Anton Webern, the importance of quartal harmony lay in the possibility of building new sounds. Hindemith Fourth and fifth writing in the second movement of Paul Hindemith's Mathis der Maler
Scale (music) Pattern of intervals in the C-major scale Play A measure of the width of each scale step provides a method to classify scales. For instance, in a chromatic scale each scale step represents a semitone interval, while a major scale is defined by the interval pattern T–T–S–T–T–T–S, where T stands for whole tone (an interval spanning two semitones), and S stands for semitone. Scales are typically listed from low to high. The notes of a scale are numbered by their steps from the root of the scale. A single scale can be manifested at many different pitch levels. for example: diatonic, chromatic, whole tone or by the number of different pitch classes they contain: "The number of the notes that make up a scale as well as the quality of the intervals between successive notes of the scale help to give the music of a culture area its peculiar sound quality The lydian mode Play , middle, functions as an intermediary between the whole tone scale Play , top, and the major scale Play , bottom. –G♯.
Harmony practice 3 Simple entry positioning:set the current voice - bass, tenor, alto, soprano, then select a note, or rest, and click a position in the score. Should the entry result incorrect, keep the mouse button down, or click the entry again, and drag it to the desired location. Alternatively, select the repitch tool (an orange coloured arrow in the Accessory tools palette) and perform dragging. Simple entry erasing: set the current voice - bass, tenor, alto, soprano, then right click an entry, select Delete item from the fast menu. Alternatively, use the eraser tool (from the Accessory tools palette). Selection: partial and whole measure selection is allowed.
Glossary of musical terminology This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes. Most of the terms are Italian (see also Italian musical terms used in English), in accordance with the Italian origins of many European musical conventions. Sometimes, the special musical meanings of these phrases differ from the original or current Italian meanings. Most of the other terms are taken from French and German, indicated by "Fr." and "Ger. Unless specified, the terms are Italian or English. A a or à (Fr.) at, to, by, for, in, in the style of... a 2 see a due a battuta Return to normal tempo after a deviation. a bene placito Up to the performer a cappella (i.e. without instrumental accompaniment) a capriccio A free and capricious approach to tempo a due intended as a duet; for two voices or instruments; together; two instruments are to play in unison after a solo passage for one of the instruments a niente a piacere a prima vista Sight-read (lit. a tempo ab (Ger.) but 1.
Understanding Basic Music Theory - Free online course Understanding Basic Music Theory is a comprehensive insight into the fundamental notions of music theory: music notation, rules of harmony, ear training, etc. It covers most of the topics needed to understand and develop your musical skills - with your favorite training tool EarMaster of course! This fantastic mine of information was written by Catherine Schmidt-Jones et al. and originally published on OpenStax CNX. Course Introduction Although it is significantly expanded from "Introduction to Music Theory", this course still covers only the bare essentials of music theory. The main purpose of the course, however, is to explore basic music theory so thoroughly that the interested student will then be able to easily pick up whatever further theory is wanted. It also helps to remember, however, that music theory is a bit like grammar. Music theory, too, always comes along after a group of composers and performers have already developed a musical tradition.