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Network effect

Network effect
Diagram showing the network effect in a few simple phone networks. The lines represent potential calls between phones. The classic example is the telephone. The more people who own telephones, the more valuable the telephone is to each owner. The expression "network effect" is applied most commonly to positive network externalities as in the case of the telephone. Over time, positive network effects can create a bandwagon effect as the network becomes more valuable and more people join, in a positive feedback loop. Origins[edit] Network effects were a central theme in the arguments of Theodore Vail, the first post patent president of Bell Telephone, in gaining a monopoly on US telephone services. The economic theory of the network effect was advanced significantly between 1985 and 1995 by researchers Michael L. Benefits[edit] Network effects become significant after a certain subscription percentage has been achieved, called critical mass. Technology lifecycle[edit] Lock-in[edit] Related:  Web & economy

Critical mass (sociodynamics) In social dynamics, critical mass is a sufficient number of adopters of an innovation in a social system so that the rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining and creates further growth. It is an aspect of the theory of diffusion of innovations, written extensively on by Everett Rogers in his book Diffusion of Innovations.[1] Social factors influencing critical mass may involve the size, interrelatedness and level of communication in a society or one of its subcultures. Another is social stigma, or the possibility of public advocacy due to such a factor. Critical mass may be closer to majority consensus in political circles, where the most effective position is more often that held by the majority of people in society. Critical mass is a concept used in a variety of contexts, including physics, group dynamics, politics, public opinion, and technology. The concept of critical mass had existed before it entered a sociology context. Finally, Herbert A. In M. A fax machine

Human-based computation Human-based computation (HBC) is a computer science technique in which a machine performs its function by outsourcing certain steps to humans. This approach uses differences in abilities and alternative costs between humans and computer agents to achieve symbiotic human-computer interaction. In traditional computation, a human employs a computer[1] to solve a problem; a human provides a formalized problem description and an algorithm to a computer, and receives a solution to interpret. Human-based computation frequently reverses the roles; the computer asks a person or a large group of people to solve a problem, then collects, interprets, and integrates their solutions. Early work[edit] Human-based computation (apart from the historical meaning of "computer") research has its origins in the early work on interactive evolutionary computation. A concept of the automatic Turing test pioneered by Moni Naor (1996) is another precursor of human-based computation. Alternative terms[edit]

BookBuzzr-Free Online Book Marketing Technology for Authors SNAPSHOT: Here's (Almost) Everybody That Works At Foursquare Plate-forme collaborative Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Une plate-forme de travail collaboratif est un espace de travail virtuel. C'est un outil, parfois sous la forme d'un site internet, qui centralise tous les outils liés à la conduite d'un projet, la gestion des connaissances ou au fonctionnement d'une organisation[1] et les met à disposition des acteurs. L'objectif du travail collaboratif est de faciliter et optimiser la communication entre les individus dans le cadre du travail ou d'une tâche non liée au travail, généralement en mesurant également leur impact sur le comportement des groupes. Contenus et fonctionnalités[modifier | modifier le code] Ce type de plate-forme intègre par exemple les fonctionnalités suivantes : Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code] Usages des outils collaboratifs[modifier | modifier le code] Voir Etude de Kelton Research, juin 2010 Voir Etude de Lecko, décembre 2013 Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code] Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code]

Notes on Factors in Collective Intelligence | There are probably hundreds of factors we could identify as important for the generation of collective intelligence in different types of human system. We find these factors wherever we see collective intelligence being exercised, and when we support them (especially in combination) we often find collective intelligence increasing. From my work with reflective forms of CI in groups, communities and societies, I find that about fifteen factors stand out most vividly, and I’ve listed them with brief descriptions here. As I tried to articulate them, I noticed how they overlapped and showed up as part of each other. _ _ _ _ _ __ _ Some Factors Which Support Collective Intelligence DIVERSITY – To the extent everyone is the same, their intelligence can’t collectively add up to something more than any of them individually. Like this: Like Loading...

TGIF Book Marketing Tips: Everything You Do Online Reflects on Your Book Everything You Do Online Reflects on Your Book: Make Sure That Reflection Is Professional Guest Expert: Phyllis Zimbler Miller This month’s guest post is a natural extension of last month’s guest post “Do Your Offline and Online Book Promotion Activities Support Each Other?” In that post I talked about how your book author website should present consistent information about your offline and online book promotion activities. In addition, all your online book promotion activities should present you as a professional book author, regardless of whether your book was traditionally published or self-published. Recently a book marketing consulting client asked me why he could not build a website himself for his nonfiction book the same as he had built for his business. When he said yes, I told him that his business site did not look professional. And this advice about professionalism extends to everything you do online to promote your book. Why is this so important? 0stumbleupon

Yahoo! economist rebuilds ad empire with 'Magic Formula' Yahoo! CEO Carol Bartz owns a sweatshirt emblazoned with Preston McAfee's math. McAfee is an economist, but he's the sort of economist who's actually useful. In the early-90s, he helped build the simultaneous ascending auction, a mathematical contraption that governments across the globe have since used to license over $100 million in wireless spectrum. And nowadays, as the man who oversees the microeconomics and social sciences research group at Yahoo! "I'm a member of a group of people — you might even call it a movement — who do economics as an engineering discipline," McAfee tells The Reg. "Economics as engineering discipline is all about building things with economics that are positive — as opposed to stopping things, things that won't work." McAfee is a disciple of Nobel Prize–winning economist Roger Myerson, whose "mechanism design theory" has been used to build everything from efficient trading systems to reliable voting procedures. The formula Yes, Yahoo!

information « relationary.wordpress I was passed this link to a free Knowledge Management Course by a friend today. I gave the entire course a read (it is not that long) and concluded that there was only one thing that the course covered that is not covered by the Six Hats, Six Coats as it has been explained so far. The issue is valuation, how do we know the cost/benefit of any fact. Otherwise, the authors wave the term “knowledge” around with little restraint to the point of its being meaningless. If they had it their way, everything would be knowledge. To perform valuation of the Six Hats, Six Coats Framework, facts are each of the Six Coats columns: Motive, Locale, Object, Method, Person and Moment. The rest of the Knowledge Management concepts are covered by the Six Hats, Six Coats Framework. The Six Hats, Six Coats Framework provides not only knowledge. Green Hat: Wisdom. The Six Hats, Six Coats Framework gives a clear definition of knowledge. “Mentifacts” and “Sociofacts” are obtuse terms.

Socially distributed cognition Distributed cognition is a psychological theory that knowledge lies not only within the individual, but also in the individual's social and physical environment. This theory was developed in the mid-1980s by Edwin Hutchins. Using insights from sociology, cognitive science, and the psychology of Vygotsky (cf. cultural-historical psychology) it emphasizes the social aspects of cognition. It is a framework for studying cognition rather than a type of cognition. Embodiment of information that is embedded in representations of interactionCoordination of enaction among embodied agentsEcological contributions to a cognitive ecosystem Distributed cognition is a branch of cognitive science that proposes that human knowledge and cognition are not confined to the individual. This abstraction can be categorized into three distinct types of processes: Early research[edit] John Milton Roberts thought that social organization could be seen as cognition through a community (Roberts 1964). Daniel L.

Snap-together Sphere by aubenc A simple sphere made from three interlocked rings I made one day to show the whole process to a friend. The dimensions of the rings in the provided stl files are 60mm outer diameter, 20mm height and 3mm thickness. They have been generated with one face at every 2mm of the perimeter and also, a gap of 0.4mm in the slots which gave a nice fit for the rings printed by bot1334. The zip file contains two more examples (40mm diameter, 5mm and 10mm height and, if I'm not wrong, 2mm thickness) however, I was not using any "gap" parameter for those so... they'll need some cleaning to fit properly. Some more pics: UPDATE: Replaced the OpenSCAD file with v3 version which fixes a bug in the tolerances between rings.

Economists the new hot job category for Silicon Valley tech companies By Mike Swift Posted: 11/22/2010 12:01:00 AM PST0 Comments|Updated: 3 years ago In addition to software engineers, computer scientists and Web designers, Silicon Valley giants ranging from Yahoo to Google to eBay are scrambling to hire economists, little-known and increasingly valuable weapons as these companies create new businesses and fine-tune existing ones. In the wake of the example of UC Berkeley economist Hal Varian, who helped Google perfect the auction process behind its multibillion-dollar search advertising revenue stream, big Internet companies are competing to woo economists away from universities or work with them on specific projects. "Other companies have recognized that economists really have a lot to contribute," said Varian, who joined Mountain View-based Google full time in 2007 after having worked as a consultant for the search giant since 2002.

Pro-Ams: The Rise Of The Amateur Professionals, Prosumers, Passionate Amateurs "A number of factors are coming together to empower amateurs in a way never before possible, blurring the lines between those who make and those who take. Unlike the dot-com fortune hunters of the late 1990s, these do-it-yourselfers aren't deluding themselves with oversized visions of what they might achieve. Instead, they're simply finding a way--in this mass-produced, Wal-Mart world--to take power back, prove that they can make the products that they want to consume, have fun doing so, and, just maybe, make a few dollars." Passionate amateurs have in fact attracted the attention of both large corporations as well as the one of mainstream news sources, who have recently started to devote quite a bit of attention to this new spreading phenomenon. Call them "prosumers" or "Pro-Am", professional amateurs are here to stay while gradually transforming many of the professional realities we now give for granted. "Numerous currents have converged to produce this reaction.