Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. Definition The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. Problems can also be classified into two different types (ill-defined and well-defined) from which appropriate solutions are to be made. Psychology While problem solving accompanies the very beginning of human evolution and especially the history of mathematics, the nature of human problem solving processes and methods has been studied by psychologists over the past hundred years. Clinical psychology
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LeetOne way to write the word "Wikipedia" in Leet Leet (or "1337"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is an alternative alphabet for the English language that is used primarily on the Internet. It uses various combinations of ASCII characters to replace Latinate letters. For example, leet spellings of the word leet include 1337 and l33t; eleet may be spelled 31337 or 3l33t. History Leet symbols, especially the number 1337, are Internet memes that have spilled over into popular culture. Orthography One of the hallmarks of leet is its unique approach to orthography, using substitutions of other characters, letters or otherwise, to represent a letter or letters in a word. For more casual use of leet, the primary strategy is to use homoglyphs, symbols that closely resemble (to varying degrees) the letters for which they stand. Morphology Text rendered in leet is often characterized by distinctive, recurring forms. The -xor suffix The -age suffix The -ness suffix Words ending in -ed Grammar n00b Pr0n
Creative problem-solvingCreative problem-solving is the mental process of searching for an original and previously unknown solution to a problem. To qualify, the solution must be novel and reached independently. Creative solution types The process of creative problem-solving usually begins with defining the problem. If a creative solution has broad application – that is, uses that go beyond the original intent –, it may be referred to as an innovative solution, or an innovation (some innovations may also be considered an invention). "All innovations [begin] as creative solutions, but not all creative solutions become innovations Techniques and tools Many techniques and tools employed for creating effective solutions to a problem are described in creativity techniques and problem-solving articles. Creative problem-solving technique categories See also Related articles Related lists References Further reading External links
LEARNER INPUTWho Runs Wikipedia? (Aaron Swartz's Raw Thought)During Wikimania, I gave a short talk proposing some new features for Wikipedia. The audience, which consisted mostly of programmers and other high-level Wikipedians, immediately begun suggesting problems with the idea. “Won’t bad thing X happen?” At the time, I was just happy this quieted them down. It wasn’t because its programmers were so far-sighted that the software solved all the problems. No, the reason Wikipedia works is because of the community, a group of people that took the project as their own and threw themselves into making it succeed. People are constantly trying to vandalize Wikipedia, replacing articles with random text. Why does anyone do such a thing? It’s hard to imagine anyone feeling this way about Britannica. Everybody knows Wikipedia as the site anyone can edit. But what’s less well-known is that it’s also the site that anyone can run. This is so unusual, we don’t even have a word for it. But Wikipedia’s openness isn’t a mistake; it’s the source of its success.
Claude Shannon: How a Real Genius Solves ProblemsIt took Claude Shannon about a decade to fully formulate his seminal theory of information. He first flirted with the idea of establishing a common foundation for the many information technologies of his day (like the telephone, the radio, and the television) in graduate school. It wasn’t until 1948, however, that he published A Mathematical Theory of Communication. This wasn’t his only big contribution, though. To the average person, this may not mean much. The word genius is thrown around casually, but there are very few people who actually deserve the moniker like Claude Shannon. One of the subtle causes behind what manifested as such genius, however, was the way he attacked problems. His problems were different from many of the problems we are likely to deal with, but the template and its reasoning can be generalized to some degree, and when it is, it may just help us think sharper, too. All problems have a shape and a form. Build a Core Before Filling the Details All You Need to Know
LEARNER INPUTDatabase downloadWikipedia offers free copies of all available content to interested users. These databases can be used for mirroring, personal use, informal backups, offline use or database queries (such as for Wikipedia:Maintenance). All text content is multi-licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). Images and other files are available under different terms, as detailed on their description pages. For our advice about complying with these licenses, see Wikipedia:Copyrights. Where do I get... English-language Wikipedia Dumps from any Wikimedia Foundation project: Wikipedia dumps in SQL and XML: – Current revisions only, no talk or user pages. Other languages In the directory you will find the latest SQL and XML dumps for the projects, not just English. Dealing with compressed files
Candle problemProblem The test presents the participant with the following task: how to fix and light a candle on a wall (a cork board) in a way so the candle wax won't drip onto the table below. To do so, one may only use the following along with the candle: a box of matchesa box of thumbtacks Solution The solution is to empty the box of thumbtacks, put the candle into the box, use the thumbtacks to nail the box (with the candle in it) to the wall, and light the candle with the match. The concept of functional fixedness predicts that the participant will only see the box as a device to hold the thumbtacks and not immediately perceive it as a separate and functional component available to be used in solving the task. Response Many of the people who attempted the test explored other creative, but less efficient, methods to achieve the goal. Glucksberg Linguistic implications E. In a written version of the task given to people at Stanford University, Michael C.