Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. Definition The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. Problems can also be classified into two different types (ill-defined and well-defined) from which appropriate solutions are to be made. Psychology While problem solving accompanies the very beginning of human evolution and especially the history of mathematics, the nature of human problem solving processes and methods has been studied by psychologists over the past hundred years. Clinical psychology
Résolution de problèmeUn article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La résolution de problème est le processus d'identification puis de mise en œuvre d'une solution à un problème. C'est généralement un processus en quatre étapes : Identification : Comprendre la situation, identifier les problèmes prioritaires, définir les objectifs visésAnalyse : Rechercher les causes possibles, remonter à la cause racine ou aux causes principalesSolution : Rechercher et sélectionner une ou un groupe de solutions à mettre en placeMise en oeuvre : Mettre en œuvre le plan d’action, vérifier, pérénniser et diffuser les résultats obtenus Gestion de la qualité dans l'industrie et ingénierie des connaissances[modifier | modifier le code] 8D : cette méthode, fréquemment utilisée comme outil de gestion de la qualité dans l'industrie, permet d'éradiquer complètement et durablement un problème. Outils En informatique[modifier | modifier le code] En psychologie[modifier | modifier le code] Casse-têtes[modifier | modifier le code]
9. PlanPlans can be formal or informal: Structured and formal plans, used by multiple people, are more likely to occur in projects, diplomacy, careers, economic development, military campaigns, combat, sports, games, or in the conduct of other business. In most cases, the absence of a well-laid plan can have adverse effects: for example, a non-robust project plan can cost the organization time and money.Informal or ad hoc plans are created by individuals in all of their pursuits. The most popular ways to describe plans are by their breadth, time frame, and specificity; however, these planning classifications are not independent of one another. For instance, there is a close relationship between the short- and long-term categories and the strategic and operational categories. It is common for less formal plans to be created as abstract ideas, and remain in that form as they are maintained and put to use. Plan topics Planning Planners Methodology Examples of plans
LEARNER INPUTEight Disciplines Problem SolvingEight Disciplines Problem Solving (8D) is a method used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals. Its purpose is to identify, correct and eliminate recurring problems, and it is useful in product and process improvement. It establishes a permanent corrective action based on statistical analysis of the problem (when appropriate) and focuses on the origin of the problem by determining its root causes. D0: Plan: Plan for solving the problem and determine the prerequisites. D1: Use a Team: Establish a team of people with product/process knowledge. D2: Define and describe the Problem: Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem. D3: Develop Interim Containment Plan; Implement and verify Interim Actions: Define and implement containment actions to isolate the problem from any customer. History Ford's perspective Military usage
7. MemoryOverview of the forms and functions of memory in the sciences In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory: The loss of memory is described as forgetfulness, or as a medical disorder, amnesia. Sensory memory Sensory memory holds sensory information for a few seconds or less after an item is perceived. There are three types of sensory memories. Short-term memory Long-term memory Models Models of memory provide abstract representations of how memory is believed to work.
LEARNER INPUTHow to Solve ItHow to Solve It (1945) is a small volume by mathematician George Pólya describing methods of problem solving. Four principles How to Solve It suggests the following steps when solving a mathematical problem: First, you have to understand the problem.After understanding, then make a plan.Carry out the plan.Look back on your work. How could it be better? If this technique fails, Pólya advises: "If you can't solve a problem, then there is an easier problem you can solve: find it. First principle: Understand the problem "Understand the problem" is often neglected as being obvious and is not even mentioned in many mathematics classes. What are you asked to find or show? The teacher is to select the question with the appropriate level of difficulty for each student to ascertain if each student understands at their own level, moving up or down the list to prompt each student, until each one can respond with something constructive. Second principle: Devise a plan
7. EmotionThe physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions. Emotions are a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence our behaviour. Those acting primarily on emotion may seem as if they are not thinking, but cognition is an important aspect of emotion, particularly the interpretation of events. For example, the experience of fear usually occurs in response to a threat. The cognition of danger and subsequent arousal of the nervous system (e.g. rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is an integral component to the subsequent interpretation and labeling of that arousal as an emotional state. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency. Etymology, definitions, and differentiation The word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up". Components