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Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. Definition[edit] The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. Problems can also be classified into two different types (ill-defined and well-defined) from which appropriate solutions are to be made. Psychology[edit] While problem solving accompanies the very beginning of human evolution and especially the history of mathematics,[4] the nature of human problem solving processes and methods has been studied by psychologists over the past hundred years. Clinical psychology[edit] Related:  Problem Solving

Creative problem-solving Creative problem-solving is the mental process of searching for an original and previously unknown solution to a problem. To qualify, the solution must be novel and reached independently.[1] Creative solution types[edit] The process of creative problem-solving usually begins with defining the problem. If a creative solution has broad application – that is, uses that go beyond the original intent –, it may be referred to as an innovative solution, or an innovation (some innovations may also be considered an invention). "All innovations [begin] as creative solutions, but not all creative solutions become innovations Techniques and tools[edit] Many techniques and tools employed for creating effective solutions to a problem are described in creativity techniques and problem-solving articles. Creative problem-solving technique categories[edit] See also[edit] Related articles[edit] Related lists[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit] External links[edit]

LEARNER INPUT How to Solve It How to Solve It (1945) is a small volume by mathematician George Pólya describing methods of problem solving.[1] Four principles[edit] How to Solve It suggests the following steps when solving a mathematical problem: First, you have to understand the problem.[2]After understanding, then make a plan.[3]Carry out the plan.[4]Look back on your work.[5] How could it be better? If this technique fails, Pólya advises:[6] "If you can't solve a problem, then there is an easier problem you can solve: find it. First principle: Understand the problem[edit] "Understand the problem" is often neglected as being obvious and is not even mentioned in many mathematics classes. What are you asked to find or show? The teacher is to select the question with the appropriate level of difficulty for each student to ascertain if each student understands at their own level, moving up or down the list to prompt each student, until each one can respond with something constructive. Second principle: Devise a plan[edit]

Claude Shannon: How a Real Genius Solves Problems It took Claude Shannon about a decade to fully formulate his seminal theory of information. He first flirted with the idea of establishing a common foundation for the many information technologies of his day (like the telephone, the radio, and the television) in graduate school. It wasn’t until 1948, however, that he published A Mathematical Theory of Communication. This wasn’t his only big contribution, though. To the average person, this may not mean much. The word genius is thrown around casually, but there are very few people who actually deserve the moniker like Claude Shannon. One of the subtle causes behind what manifested as such genius, however, was the way he attacked problems. His problems were different from many of the problems we are likely to deal with, but the template and its reasoning can be generalized to some degree, and when it is, it may just help us think sharper, too. All problems have a shape and a form. Build a Core Before Filling the Details All You Need to Know

LEARNER INPUT Jewish Philosophy (W) Jewish philosophy (Hebrew: פילוסופיה יהודית‎; Arabic: الفلسفة اليهودية‎; Yiddish: ייִדיש פֿילאָסאָפֿיע) includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. Until modern Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment) and Jewish Emancipation, Jewish philosophy was preoccupied with attempts to reconcile coherent new ideas into the tradition of Rabbinic Judaism; thus organizing emergent ideas that are not necessarily Jewish into a uniquely Jewish scholastic framework and world-view. With their acceptance into modern society, Jews with secular educations embraced or developed entirely new philosophies to meet the demands of the world in which they now found themselves. Medieval re-discovery of Greek thought among Gaonim of 10th century Babylonian academies brought rationalist philosophy into Biblical-Talmudic Judaism. Philosophy was generally in competition with Kabbalah. Ancient Jewish philosophy[edit] Philosophy in the Bible[edit] Philo of Alexandria[edit] Dr.

Candle problem Problem[edit] The test presents the participant with the following task: how to fix and light a candle on a wall (a cork board) in a way so the candle wax won't drip onto the table below.[3] To do so, one may only use the following along with the candle: a box of matchesa box of thumbtacks Solution[edit] The solution is to empty the box of thumbtacks, put the candle into the box, use the thumbtacks to nail the box (with the candle in it) to the wall, and light the candle with the match.[3] The concept of functional fixedness predicts that the participant will only see the box as a device to hold the thumbtacks and not immediately perceive it as a separate and functional component available to be used in solving the task. Response[edit] Many of the people who attempted the test explored other creative, but less efficient, methods to achieve the goal. Glucksberg[edit] Linguistic implications[edit] E. In a written version of the task given to people at Stanford University, Michael C.

Popplet (FREE Mind-mapping tool) Indian Philosophy (W) India has a rich and diverse philosophical tradition dating back to the composition of the Upanisads in the later Vedic period. According to Radhakrishnan, the oldest of these constitute "...the earliest philosophical compositions of the world."[1] Since the late medieval age (ca.1000-1500) various schools (Skt: Darshanas) of Indian philosophy are identified as orthodox (Skt: astika) or non-orthodox (Skt: nastika) depending on whether they regard the Veda as an infallible source of knowledge.[3] There are six schools of orthodox Hindu philosophy and three heterodox schools. The orthodox are Nyaya, Vaisesika, Samkhya, Yoga, Purva mimamsa and Vedanta. The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalised chiefly between 1000 BC to the early centuries AD. Common themes[edit] The Indian thinkers of antiquity (very much like those of the Hellenistic schools) viewed philosophy as a practical necessity that needed to be cultivated in order to understand how life can best be led. Schools[edit]

This will usually involve a variety of theories and methods, often ranging across more than one discipline since real-world problems are likely to be ‘messy’ and not soluble within the narrow confines of an academic discipline. by raviii Apr 28

The problem has to be defined and the method of solution has to be discovered. The person working in this way may have to create and identify original problem solutions every step of the way. by raviii Apr 28

In this type of research, we start from a particular problem in the real world, and bring together all the intellectual resources that can be brought to bear on its solution. by raviii Apr 28