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Problem Solving Research

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. Definition[edit] The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. Psychology[edit] In psychology, problem solving refers to a state of desire for reaching a definite 'goal' from a present condition that either is not directly moving toward the goal, is far from it, or needs more complex logic for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward the goal.[2] In psychology, problem solving is the concluding part of a larger process that also includes problem finding and problem shaping. Clinical psychology[edit] Cognitive sciences[edit] Engineering[edit] Europe[edit] Related:  Problem Solving

Testing-Out Research Dr. Estelle M. Phillips' own PhD entitled 'The PhD as a Learning Process' was completed at University College London. Throughout her career she has published on aspects of the PhD and spoken about the skills required to complete and supervise a PhD to research students and academic staff in universities of four continents. Professor Derek S. Creative problem-solving From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Creative problem-solving (CPS)[1] is the mental process of searching for an original and previously unknown solution to a problem. To qualify, the solution must be novel and reached independently.[1][2] The creative problem-solving process was originally developed by Alex Osborn and Sid Parnes. Creative problem solving (CPS) is a way of using creativity to develop new ideas and solutions to problems. The process is based on separating divergent and convergent thinking styles, so that one can focus their mind on creating at the first stage, and then evaluating at the second stage. Creative solution types[edit] The process of creative problem-solving usually begins with defining the problem. A creative solution will often have distinct characteristics that include using only existing components, or the problematic factor, as the basis for the solution. Techniques and tools[edit] Creative problem-solving technique categories[edit] See also[edit]

LEARNER INPUT Exploratory Research Exploratory research is research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make conceptual distinctions or posit an explanatory relationship.[1] Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation.

Claude Shannon: How a Real Genius Solves Problems It took Claude Shannon about a decade to fully formulate his seminal theory of information. He first flirted with the idea of establishing a common foundation for the many information technologies of his day (like the telephone, the radio, and the television) in graduate school. It wasn’t until 1948, however, that he published A Mathematical Theory of Communication. This wasn’t his only big contribution, though. As a student at MIT, at the humble age of 21, he published a thesis that many consider possibly the most important master’s thesis of the century. To the average person, this may not mean much. The word genius is thrown around casually, but there are very few people who actually deserve the moniker like Claude Shannon. One of the subtle causes behind what manifested as such genius, however, was the way he attacked problems. All problems have a shape and a form. Build a Core Before Filling the Details This is where Shannon did the opposite. Details are important and useful.

LEARNER INPUT The four main approaches - Types of research - Understanding dementia research - Research - Alzheimer Europe Quantitative research Quantitative research is generally associated with the positivist/postpositivist paradigm. It usually involves collecting and converting data into numerical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn. The process Researchers will have one or more hypotheses. These are the questions that they want to address which include predictions about possible relationships between the things they want to investigate (variables). Data is collected by various means following a strict procedure and prepared for statistical analysis. The results of statistical analyses are presented in journals in a standard way, the end result being a P value. Principles Objectivity is very important in quantitative research. Researchers go to great lengths to ensure that they are really measuring what they claim to be measuring. External factors, which might affect the results, must also be controlled for. When looking at results, the P value is important. Principles

Candle problem Problem[edit] The test presents the participant with the following task: how to fix and light a candle on a wall (a cork board) in a way so the candle wax won't drip onto the table below.[3] To do so, one may only use the following along with the candle: a box of matchesa box of thumbtacks Solution[edit] The solution is to empty the box of thumbtacks, put the candle into the box, use the thumbtacks to nail the box (with the candle in it) to the wall, and light the candle with the match.[3] The concept of functional fixedness predicts that the participant will only see the box as a device to hold the thumbtacks and not immediately perceive it as a separate and functional component available to be used in solving the task. Response[edit] Many of the people who attempted the test explored other creative, but less efficient, methods to achieve the goal. Glucksberg[edit] Linguistic implications[edit] E. In a written version of the task given to people at Stanford University, Michael C.

Frequently asked questions on PhD applications I’m asked this question a lot. I’m going to give some advice and demystify the process of US admissions a bit. I also address the question “Would you be my advisor if I apply?” I won’t demystify entirely, because uniform applications are unhelpful to us reviewers. First, some caveats. If you are applying to economics, you absolutely must heed the following: Nearly all of Athey and Mankiw’s advice applies equally well to aspiring political scientists who want to do political economy or development work, and indeed almost any of the applied empirical fields in politics. For advice on political science PhD applications, also see Dan Drezner and Dan Nexon, who focus a little on international relations scholars. Please point everyone to other sources of PhD advice in the comments. Should you do a PhD? A first important, simple point: If your goal is to be a professional researcher and instructor, then a PhD makes sense. Why? I talk about choosing among Masters-level programs here. Good grades.

This will usually involve a variety of theories and methods, often ranging across more than one discipline since real-world problems are likely to be ‘messy’ and not soluble within the narrow confines of an academic discipline. by raviii Apr 28

The problem has to be defined and the method of solution has to be discovered. The person working in this way may have to create and identify original problem solutions every step of the way. by raviii Apr 28

In this type of research, we start from a particular problem in the real world, and bring together all the intellectual resources that can be brought to bear on its solution. by raviii Apr 28