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Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. Definition[edit] The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. Problems can also be classified into two different types (ill-defined and well-defined) from which appropriate solutions are to be made. Psychology[edit] While problem solving accompanies the very beginning of human evolution and especially the history of mathematics,[4] the nature of human problem solving processes and methods has been studied by psychologists over the past hundred years. Clinical psychology[edit] Related:  {R} PhDProblem Solving

Gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt – "shape or form") is a theory of mind of the Berlin School. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies. This principle maintains that the human mind considers objects in their entirety before, or in parallel with, perception of their individual parts; suggesting the whole is other than the sum of its parts. In the domain of perception, Gestalt psychologists stipulate that perceptions are the products of complex interactions among various stimuli. Origins[edit] Both von Ehrenfels and Edmund Husserl seem to have been inspired by Mach's work Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen (Contributions to the Analysis of Sensations, 1886), in formulating their very similar concepts of gestalt and figural moment, respectively. These laws took several forms, such as the grouping of similar, or proximate, objects together, within this global process. Gestalt therapy[edit] Invariance

Testing-Out Research Dr. Estelle M. Phillips' own PhD entitled 'The PhD as a Learning Process' was completed at University College London. Professor Derek S. Creative problem-solving Creative problem-solving is the mental process of searching for an original and previously unknown solution to a problem. To qualify, the solution must be novel and reached independently.[1] Creative solution types[edit] The process of creative problem-solving usually begins with defining the problem. If a creative solution has broad application – that is, uses that go beyond the original intent –, it may be referred to as an innovative solution, or an innovation (some innovations may also be considered an invention). "All innovations [begin] as creative solutions, but not all creative solutions become innovations Techniques and tools[edit] Many techniques and tools employed for creating effective solutions to a problem are described in creativity techniques and problem-solving articles. Creative problem-solving technique categories[edit] See also[edit] Related articles[edit] Related lists[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit] External links[edit]

Leet One way to write the word "Wikipedia" in Leet Leet (or "1337"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is an alternative alphabet for the English language that is used primarily on the Internet. It uses various combinations of ASCII characters to replace Latinate letters. For example, leet spellings of the word leet include 1337 and l33t; eleet may be spelled 31337 or 3l33t. History Leet symbols, especially the number 1337, are Internet memes that have spilled over into popular culture. Orthography One of the hallmarks of leet is its unique approach to orthography, using substitutions of other characters, letters or otherwise, to represent a letter or letters in a word.[4][5] For more casual use of leet, the primary strategy is to use homoglyphs, symbols that closely resemble (to varying degrees) the letters for which they stand. Morphology Text rendered in leet is often characterized by distinctive, recurring forms. The -xor suffix The -age suffix The -ness suffix Words ending in -ed Grammar n00b Pr0n

How to Solve It How to Solve It (1945) is a small volume by mathematician George Pólya describing methods of problem solving.[1] Four principles[edit] How to Solve It suggests the following steps when solving a mathematical problem: First, you have to understand the problem.[2]After understanding, then make a plan.[3]Carry out the plan.[4]Look back on your work.[5] How could it be better? If this technique fails, Pólya advises:[6] "If you can't solve a problem, then there is an easier problem you can solve: find it. First principle: Understand the problem[edit] "Understand the problem" is often neglected as being obvious and is not even mentioned in many mathematics classes. What are you asked to find or show? The teacher is to select the question with the appropriate level of difficulty for each student to ascertain if each student understands at their own level, moving up or down the list to prompt each student, until each one can respond with something constructive. Second principle: Devise a plan[edit]

Abstraction Abstraction is a process by which concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal ("real" or "concrete") concepts, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the product of this process—a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category.[1] Abstractions may be formed by reducing the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, typically to retain only information which is relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball retains only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball.[1] Origins[edit] Thinking in abstractions is considered[by whom?] Abstraction involves induction of ideas or the synthesis of particular facts into one general theory about something. Thought process[edit] Cat on Mat (picture 1)

Exploratory Research Exploratory research is research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make conceptual distinctions or posit an explanatory relationship.[1] Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation.

Claude Shannon: How a Real Genius Solves Problems It took Claude Shannon about a decade to fully formulate his seminal theory of information. He first flirted with the idea of establishing a common foundation for the many information technologies of his day (like the telephone, the radio, and the television) in graduate school. It wasn’t until 1948, however, that he published A Mathematical Theory of Communication. This wasn’t his only big contribution, though. To the average person, this may not mean much. The word genius is thrown around casually, but there are very few people who actually deserve the moniker like Claude Shannon. One of the subtle causes behind what manifested as such genius, however, was the way he attacked problems. His problems were different from many of the problems we are likely to deal with, but the template and its reasoning can be generalized to some degree, and when it is, it may just help us think sharper, too. All problems have a shape and a form. Build a Core Before Filling the Details All You Need to Know

Who Runs Wikipedia? (Aaron Swartz's Raw Thought) During Wikimania, I gave a short talk proposing some new features for Wikipedia. The audience, which consisted mostly of programmers and other high-level Wikipedians, immediately begun suggesting problems with the idea. “Won’t bad thing X happen?” At the time, I was just happy this quieted them down. It wasn’t because its programmers were so far-sighted that the software solved all the problems. No, the reason Wikipedia works is because of the community, a group of people that took the project as their own and threw themselves into making it succeed. People are constantly trying to vandalize Wikipedia, replacing articles with random text. Why does anyone do such a thing? It’s hard to imagine anyone feeling this way about Britannica. Everybody knows Wikipedia as the site anyone can edit. But what’s less well-known is that it’s also the site that anyone can run. This is so unusual, we don’t even have a word for it. But Wikipedia’s openness isn’t a mistake; it’s the source of its success.

This will usually involve a variety of theories and methods, often ranging across more than one discipline since real-world problems are likely to be ‘messy’ and not soluble within the narrow confines of an academic discipline. by raviii Apr 28

The problem has to be defined and the method of solution has to be discovered. The person working in this way may have to create and identify original problem solutions every step of the way. by raviii Apr 28

In this type of research, we start from a particular problem in the real world, and bring together all the intellectual resources that can be brought to bear on its solution. by raviii Apr 28