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Natural selection

Natural selection
Related:  Year 10 Evolution

Complicity and the Brain: Dynamics in Attractor Space Dr. Peter Henningsen Abstract: This paper outlines a research program that is intended to look for the emergence of consciousness in computers. We argue that a good place to look is the space of Self-Organizing Networks of Attractor Neural Networks (SONofANNs). In the main part of the paper, we then specialize our investigation to Self-Organizing Hopfield Networks (SOHNs), and construct a model that can give rise to emergent semantic networks and brainwave processing, two new concepts introduced here. This paper is structured in five parts: Parts 1 and 2 introduce a class of dynamic systems called SONkANNs - self-organizing networks (k times iterated) of attractor neural networks. Decomposing the Neocortex into Subsystems When analyzing a complex system, the first step is to check whether the system can sensibly be decomposed into subsystems. There are other reasons as well. Possible Subsystem Dynamics Levels of Emergence in the Brain Creating Complicity from Scratch

guppy Name:_________________________________________ The purpose of this activity is to analyze how guppy populations change over time. The simulation activity allows you to start with a pool of guppies and your choice of predators, you will be able to watch what happens to your guppy population and how the introduction of predators can affect the guppy's appearance. *Activity adapted from PBS - Open the Guppy Sex Simulator!! Introduction: 1. 2. 3. 4. Endler’s Discovery and Variations of Guppy’s in Pools 5. 6. Pool 1:Pool 2:Pool 3: 7. Guppy Simulation 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Evolution via Roadkill Cliff swallows that build nests that dangle precariously from highway overpasses have a lower chance of becoming roadkill than in years past thanks to a shorter wingspan that lets them dodge oncoming traffic. That's the conclusion of a new study based on 3 decades of data collected on one population of the birds. The results suggest that shorter wingspan has been selected for over this time period because of the evolutionary pressure put on the population by cars. "This is a clear example of how you can observe natural selection over short time periods," says ecologist Charles Brown of the University of Tulsa in Oklahoma, who conducted the new study with wife Mary Bomberger Brown, an ornithologist at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. The Browns have studied cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska since 1982. The birds that were being killed, further analysis revealed, weren't representative of the rest of the population.

Lenski affair Dear Mr. Schlafly: I tried to be polite, civil and respectful in my reply to your first email, despite its rude tone and uninformed content. Given the continued rudeness of your second email, and the willfully ignorant and slanderous content on your website, my second response will be less polite. I expect you to post my response in its entirety; if not, I will make sure that is made publicly available through other channels. I offer this lengthy reply because I am an educator as well as a scientist. First, it seems that reading might not be your strongest suit given your initial letter, which showed that you had not read our paper, and given subsequent conversations with your followers, in which you wrote that you still had not bothered to read our paper. "I think it might be best to clarify some of Richard's work. “I read Lenski's paper, and as a trained microbiologist, I thought that it was both thorough and well done. Finally, let me now turn to our data. One of your acolytes, Dr. – online reading for free. guppy The purpose of this activity is to analyze how guppy populations change over time. The simulation activity allows you to start with a pool of guppies and your choice of predators, you will be able to watch what happens to your guppy population and how the introduction of predators can affect the guppy's appearance. The simulation will help you understand what pressures drive guppy evolution. *Activity adapted from PBS - Open the Guppy Sex Simulator!!! Introduction First of all, familiarize yourself with the site, you should know each of the following before proceeding to the simulation. View the guppy gallery, know the color variations found among guppies View the predator gallery, know the types of predators of guppies Read about John Endler's experiment View the three types of pools and know what guppy colors are common in each area Read the three possible hypotheses for guppy coloration Experiment 1. 3. The Simulation Grading

Defender's Guide to Science and Creationism Introduction Share Not for over a century has there been any scientific controversy over creationism. Assertions Analyzed Bracketed dates indicate a new entry. I: Cosmology and astronomy Objections to Big Bang theory Objections to natural astronomical processes Astronomical objections to the old age of the universe and its contents Miscellaneous The fine-tuning of the cosmological constants proves the universe was created. II: Geology and the age of the earth Objections to radiometric dating Geological objections to the old age of the earth Noah's Flood was caused by the condensation of a vapor canopy which also enabled people to live hundreds of years by screening out UV rays. III: Abiogenesis (the origin of life) General objections to abiogenesis The panspermia hypothesis is useless because it just pushes back the question of how life originated. IV: Evolutionary biology Mutation Speciation Things that supposedly could not have evolved Counterarguments against evidence for evolution V: Paleontology

Online | Winners of MAKE Volume 27 Robot Contest Here at headquarters, we just wrapped up the newest issue of MAKE, Volume 27, the Robot issue. Look for it on newsstands on July 26th. While we were working on the issue, we were curious to see what kinds of bots our community members were making and thought it would be fun to host a little contest. The premise of the contest was simple: we were looking for bots with lots of character. To enter, folks contributed their build photos and text into Make: Projects, along with a video of the bot in action. Entries were judged by the editorial staff of MAKE based on the following criteria: (a) Entertainment Value: 50%; (b) Quality of Written Documentation: 25%; and (c) Quality of Documentation Photography/Video: 25%. TOP BOT:Chopsticks the Spider Robot by Russell Cameron won us over with his big eyes, the way he walks, his awesome legs made of chopsticks and polymorph plastic, and Russell’s fabulous project documentation and videos. Thanks to everyone who entered! Goli Mohammadi Related

Twitter for Mac update When Twitter for Mac launched at the beginning of the year it received praise for its simplicity, speed and look. It also came packed with features like auto-shortened URLs, Tweets appearing in real-time, and multi-account support.Today, we’re releasing the first major update to Twitter for Mac. Some of the highlights: See multiple timelines at once. You can download the update from the Mac App Store now.

Darwin/Lamark court case By Don Mills This six to seven 40 minute period activity allows students to role play while learning theories of evolution. To start this activity have your students write their names on scrap pieces of paper. JUDGE : Preside over court, follow judicial rules and maintain order in court.BAILIFF : Call court to order, introduce judge, and swear in witnesses.COURT REPORTERS (2) : Record all proceedings in a notebook.DARWIN and LAMARCK : Tell where they were educated and what they have done in life. Group 2 : Research how the paleontologist can provide giraffe evidence that supports your person's theory. Group 3 : Research using SIRS and encyclopedias, etc. to find other witnesses. Group 4 : Using the list of witnesses from the other side, which the other side has provided your group, look up possible cross examination questions for each witness provided (you should know the responses you expect.) Trial procedures and hints: Witnesses - you should have notes with you at the stand.

Using Appropriate Terminology Function not purpose The purpose of a hammer is to pound nails. One function of a hand is to hold a hammer. Designed tools have purposes. Evidence not proof We often hear news stories in which the narrator refers to having “enough proof.” Primitive and advanced The average person might see an opossum as more primitive than a cat. Theory vs. hypothesis A theory is an explanation. A hypothesis is a testable idea. Believe or accept “Do you believe in evolution?”

Einstein for Everyone Einstein for Everyone Nullarbor Press 2007revisions 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Copyright 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 John D. Norton Published by Nullarbor Press, 500 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 with offices in Liberty Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15222 All Rights Reserved John D. An advanced sequel is planned in this series:Einstein for Almost Everyone 2 4 6 8 9 7 5 3 1 ePrinted in the United States of America no trees were harmed web*bookTM This book is a continuing work in progress. January 1, 2015. Preface For over a decade I have taught an introductory, undergraduate class, "Einstein for Everyone," at the University of Pittsburgh to anyone interested enough to walk through door. With each new offering of the course, I had the chance to find out what content worked and which of my ever so clever pedagogical inventions were failures. At the same time, my lecture notes have evolved. This text owes a lot to many. i i i