Within computational linguistics the term is used to refer to the formal analysis by a computer of a sentence or other string of words into its constituents, resulting in a parse tree showing their syntactic relation to each other, which may also contain semantic and other information. The term is also used in psycholinguistics when describing language comprehension. In this context, parsing refers to the way that human beings analyze a sentence or phrase (in spoken language or text) "in terms of grammatical constituents, identifying the parts of speech, syntactic relations, etc."  This term is especially common when discussing what linguistic cues help speakers to interpret garden-path sentences. Human languages Traditional methods Parsing was formerly central to the teaching of grammar throughout the English-speaking world, and widely regarded as basic to the use and understanding of written language. Computational methods Psycholinguistics Parser
Related: avril 2014
Lesson 6 - Tuples, Lists, and DictionariesIntroduction Your brain still hurting from the last lesson? Never worry, this one will require a little less thought. Think about it - variables store one bit of information. But what if you need to store a long list of information, which doesn't change over time? The Solution - Lists, Tuples, and Dictionaries For these three problems, Python uses three different solutions - Tuples, lists, and dictionaries: Lists are what they seem - a list of values. Tuples Tuples are pretty easy to make. Code Example 1 - creating a tuple months = ('January','February','March','April','May','June',\ 'July','August','September','October','November',' December') Note that the '\' thingy at the end of sthurlow.comthe first line carries over that line of code to the next line. Python then organises those values in a handy, numbered index - starting from zero, in the order that you entered them in. Table 1 - tuple indicies And that is tuples! Lists Lists are extremely similar to tuples. Clears things up?
The Stanford NLP (Natural Language Processing) GroupAbout | Citing | Questions | Download | Included Tools | Extensions | Release history | Sample output | Online | FAQ A natural language parser is a program that works out the grammatical structure of sentences, for instance, which groups of words go together (as "phrases") and which words are the subject or object of a verb. Probabilistic parsers use knowledge of language gained from hand-parsed sentences to try to produce the most likely analysis of new sentences. These statistical parsers still make some mistakes, but commonly work rather well. Their development was one of the biggest breakthroughs in natural language processing in the 1990s. Package contents This package is a Java implementation of probabilistic natural language parsers, both highly optimized PCFG and lexicalized dependency parsers, and a lexicalized PCFG parser. As well as providing an English parser, the parser can be and has been adapted to work with other languages. Shift-reduce constituency parser Usage notes Java
Perl Weekly: A Free, Weekly Email Newsletter for the Perl Programming languageCognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in CognitionA Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management Maria Kozhevnikov, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, 149 Thirteenth St., Charlestown, MA 02129 E-mail: email@example.com Abstract The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. Introduction The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. The present article has the following major sections. Second, we review research on cognitive styles in the field of education and in business and management. G.
blogs.perl.org — blogging the onionKnowledge transferIn organizational theory, knowledge transfer is the practical problem of transferring knowledge from one part of the organization to another. Like knowledge management, knowledge transfer seeks to organize, create, capture or distribute knowledge and ensure its availability for future users. It is considered to be more than just a communication problem. If it were merely that, then a memorandum, an e-mail or a meeting would accomplish the knowledge transfer. Knowledge transfer is more complex because (1) knowledge resides in organizational members, tools, tasks, and their subnetworks and (2) much knowledge in organizations is tacit or hard to articulate. The subject has been taken up under the title of knowledge management since the 1990s. Background Argote & Ingram (2000) define knowledge transfer as "the process through which one unit (e.g., group, department, or division) is affected by the experience of another" (p. 151). Knowledge transfer in landscape ecology
PerlThough Perl is not officially an acronym, there are various backronyms in use, such as: Practical Extraction and Reporting Language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. The latest major stable revision of Perl 5 is 5.18, released in May 2013. Perl 6, which began as a redesign of Perl 5 in 2000, eventually evolved into a separate language. Both languages continue to be developed independently by different development teams and liberally borrow ideas from one another. History Early versions Wall began work on Perl in 1987, while working as a programmer at Unisys, and released version 1.0 to the comp.sources.misc newsgroup on December 18, 1987. The language expanded rapidly over the next few years. Perl 2, released in 1988, featured a better regular expression engine. Early Perl 5 2000–present Name
Organization theory (Castells)The theory of the Information Age is deeply rooted in organization theory. This may come as a surprise since Manuel Castells is perhaps more readily associated with either the study of the Internet, cities and regions, or social movements. There are two points to be made about the parallels with organization theory. Network researchers (see social networks) do not seem to have adopted Castells’ framework. 1. 2. 3. 4.
SPPN Stichting Perl Promotie Nederland - HomepagePerl (programmeertaal)Bibliotheek van Perl-boeken Perl wordt veel gebruikt voor taken waar voordien shell-scripts voor werden gebruikt, voornamelijk het automatiseren van taken in het systeembeheer; daarbuiten wordt het veel gebruikt voor de bewerking van allerlei soorten bestanden (natuurlijke taal, configuratiebestanden, XML- of HTML-documenten, rasterafbeeldingen, enzovoorts). Ook heeft het goede bibliotheken voor allerlei andere taken, zoals database-toegang en client/servercommunicatie. Perl wordt veel gebruikt in de bio-informatica. In de jaren 90 was het de meestgebruikte taal voor dynamische websites. Perl is een scripttaal met uitgebreide mogelijkheden voor reguliere expressies en er kan met Perl object-georiënteerd, procedureel of zelfs functioneel geprogrammeerd worden. Tot en met versie 4 werd de kracht van Perl steeds uitgebreid door extra voorgedefinieerde functies in te voegen en de taal zelf uit te breiden. Perl is vrije software, uitgebracht onder de Artistic License en GPL. perldoc perlintro