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Initial public offering

Initial public offering
History[edit] In March 1602 the “Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), or Dutch East India Company was formed. The VOC was the first modern company to issue public shares, and it is this issuance, at the beginning of the 17th century, that is considered the first modern IPO. The company had an original paid-up share capital of 6,424,588 guilders. The ability to raise this large sum is attributable to the decision taken by the owners to open up access to share ownership to a wide public. c1783.[5] c1783.[5] Reasons for listing[edit] Advantages[edit] When a company lists its securities on a public exchange, the money paid by the investing public for the newly issued shares goes directly to the company (primary offering) as well as to any early private investors who opt to sell all or a portion of their holdings (secondary offering) as part of the larger IPO. An IPO accords several benefits to the previously private company: Disadvantages[edit] Procedure[edit] Advance planning[edit] Related:  investing

Millionaires bet on space travel Closer to a space vacation? CNBC's Jon Fortt and Jane Wells run down today's hot topics, including space travel, e-cigarette promotion in the U.K. and the maker of "Candy Crush" files for an IPO. Knight Frank also noted the rising trend for investing in space research, be it space travel or asteroid mining. The estate agent said it had identified 70 "wealthy individuals", with a combined wealth of over $200 billion, who are targeting the growing space sector. (Read more: Precious metal hunters look to outer space) Bailey told CNBC that increasing numbers of wealthy individuals — defined in Knight Frank's report as those with at least $30 million in investable assets — had shown interest in the space industry over the last 12 months. "This is a risky sector," Bailey said. According to Space Affairs, established in 2000 as the "world's first commercial space agency", suborbital space flight will be a possibility for both businesses and tourists within years, rather than decades.

Ruští spisovatelé protestovali proti mocenské "rošádě" — Svět — ČT24 13. 5. 2012 15:04, autor: ČT24 Moskva - Až 10 tisíc lidí se podle organizátorů zúčastnilo "lidové promenády", kterou do centra Moskvy prostřednictvím sociálních sítí svolala skupina ruských spisovatelů. Pokojným pochodem bez hesel a transparentů chtěli účastníci průvodu vyjádřit nesouhlas se stavem ruské politiky, zejména s mocenskou "rošádou" Dmitrije Medvěděva a Vladimira Putina. autor: Misha Japaridze, zdroj: ČTK/AP Spisovatel Boris Akunin na "lidové promenádě" v Moskvě "Promenády" začali Moskvané pořádat od minulého pondělí, kdy byl Putin v Kremlu jmenován do nejvyšší ústavní funkce. Dnešní pochod mezi památníky Alexandra Puškina a Alexandra Gribojedova zorganizovala trojice ruských spisovatelů Boris Akunin, Dmitrij Bykov a Ljudmila Ulická, k nimž se připojili básníci Sergej Gandlevskij, Lev Rubinštejn a další. "Lidová promenáda" v Moskvě Policisté ale proti účastníkům průvodu nezasáhli. Spisovatel Dmitry Bykov na "lidové promenádě" v Moskvě

Venture capital In addition to angel investing and other seed funding options, venture capital is attractive for new companies with limited operating history that are too small to raise capital in the public markets and have not reached the point where they are able to secure a bank loan or complete a debt offering. In exchange for the high risk that venture capitalists assume by investing in smaller and less mature companies, venture capitalists usually get significant control over company decisions, in addition to a significant portion of the company's ownership (and consequently value). Venture capital is also associated with job creation (accounting for 2% of US GDP),[2] the knowledge economy, and used as a proxy measure of innovation within an economic sector or geography. Every year, there are nearly 2 million businesses created in the USA, and 600–800 get venture capital funding. History[edit] Origins of modern private equity[edit] J.H. Early venture capital and the growth of Silicon Valley[edit]

company profiles - bloomberg April 21, 2014 5:20 PM ET Aerospace and Defense Company Overview Virgin Galactic, LLC provides commercial spaceflight services through its passenger-carrying suborbital space vehicles. Spaceport America Las Cruces, NM 88001 United States Founded in 2004 Key Executives for Virgin Galactic, LLC Chief Executive Officer and President Vice President of Operations for Virgin Galactic Chief Executive Officer of Virgin Unite Compensation as of Fiscal Year 2013. Virgin Galactic, LLC Key Developments John S. Feb 21 14 Virgin Galactic announced John S. Virgin Galactic, LLC Presents at The IBF Annual Corporate Venturing and Innovation Partnering Conference, Feb-10-2014 06:30 PM Nov 26 13 Virgin Galactic, LLC Presents at The IBF Annual Corporate Venturing and Innovation Partnering Conference, Feb-10-2014 06:30 PM. Virgin Galactic Flexes SpaceShipTwo's Unique Feather Mechanism in Second Supersonic Flight Sep 5 13 Similar Private Companies By Industry Recent Private Companies Transactions

Hedge (finance) A hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses/gains that may be incurred by a companion investment. In simple language, a hedge is used to reduce any substantial losses/gains suffered by an individual or an organization. Public futures markets were established in the 19th century[1] to allow transparent, standardized, and efficient hedging of agricultural commodity prices; they have since expanded to include futures contracts for hedging the values of energy, precious metals, foreign currency, and interest rate fluctuations. Hedging is the practice of taking a position in one market to offset and balance against the risk adopted by assuming a position in a contrary or opposing market or investment. The word hedge is from Old English hecg, originally any fence, living or artificial. A typical hedger might be a commercial farmer. The trader has sold short the same value of shares (the value, number of shares × price, is $1000 in both cases).

This blockchain-based card game shows us the future of ownership Gods Unchained hasn’t even fully launched, but the collectible card game already has more hype around it than any blockchain game ever. This week a beta version opened to the public after months of private testing. But Fuel Games, the startup developing the game, says it has already sold millions of game cards and generated $4 million in revenue thanks to pre-sales. So why the excitement over yet another collectible card game (of which there are many)? To understand why people think this particular game could be such a big deal, you have to wrap your mind around something called “non-fungible tokens,” commonly called NFTs. Though the technical details behind them are complicated, to users NFTs are pretty simple: they are collectibles. Competitive collectible card games have been around for decades, in both physical and digital forms. Around 20 million people play Magic, and a huge secondary market has formed for players to buy and sell valuable cards.

Making Money in Outer Space (AMZN, BA, GOOGL, RTN) In the 1981 film Outland, Sean Connery stars as an old-school lawman who keeps order in a mining colony on one of Jupiter's moons, armed only with his wits and a trusty Browning 2000 shotgun. Outland is set in a future that has commercial space travel and off-planet mining, and the latter took a giant leap forward into reality last week when the private company Planetary Resources announced its plan to start mining asteroids in just more than 10 years' time. While the space industry isn't easily accessible to private investors, its prospects mean that one day the sector will become the toast of the stock market. So it's something I keep an eye on, as I believe it will present some great opportunities in the future. Money from satellitesA few public companies have major interests in space, and the one that immediately springs to mind is the satellite communications specialist Inmarsat. But so far the space industry is pretty much limited to satellites and getting them into orbit.

CzechInvest Space Investments | Space Ventures Investors Space Investments, through space funds, space stocks, crowd-funded and private investor placements, will be the enabler of the next Space Race. Space 2.0, NewSpace, and Commercial Space, are the current terms for the next Space Race, and like any feat of exploration, the best rocket fuel is finance. Space Ventures Investors is currently developing a range of space industry financial products to enable private investors and institutional investor to actively invest in space. Is Space an Emerging Market? As a growth industry, the dot.com boom and digital revolution will be superseded by the grandeur of space. The history of space is that it was born from Cold War conflict, and as the Cold War cooled so did the space race. Toxic asset Toxic asset is a popular term for certain financial assets whose value has fallen significantly and for which there is no longer a functioning market, so that such assets cannot be sold at a price satisfactory to the holder. Because assets are offset against liabilities and frequently leveraged, this decline in price may be quite dangerous to the holder. The term became common during the Late-2000s financial crisis, in which they continue to play a major role. When the market for toxic assets ceases to function, it is described as "frozen." Markets for some toxic assets froze in 2007, and the problem grew much worse in the second half of 2008. Several factors contributed to the freezing of toxic asset markets. Origin[edit] "[The 100% loan-to-value subprime loan is] the most dangerous product in existence and there can be nothing more toxic..." Regarding Countrywide's subprime 80/20 loans: "In all my years in the business I have never seen a more toxic prduct [sic]. Market freeze[edit] ...

Mining the moon will become a viable venture As space-based commerce dawns, an ambitious few want to mine the Moon and near-Earth asteroids for precious metals and more. In May last year, a spacecraft called Dragon made history. Developed by Space X, a California-based private space transport company, the craft became the first commercial spacecraft to ferry cargo between the International Space Station and Earth. With Nasa scheduling a third re-supply mission for 9 December this year, the craft proves that a private space business can succeed. But for many more, commercial space transport is only the beginning. 'We're opening up a whole new world to humanity that has abundant resources that will help project us into a multi-planet species,' says Bob Richards, chief executive of lunar lander developer, Moon Express. Richards heads up one of a growing band of new and ambitious private organisations that are very serious about mining the 'Moon or mining asteroids. Metal mining Fly me to the Moon Beyond the Moon Critical resource

Islamabad Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد‎, Islām ābād, Urdu pronunciation: [ɪsˌlɑːm ɑˈbɑːd̪]) is the capital city of Pakistan. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), the population of the city has grown from 95,940 in 1951 to 805,235 as of 1998 making it the ninth largest city in the country.[2] According to a 2012 estimate by the Census Department, the population of Islamabad including its surrounding territory has increased to 2 million[3] and together with its neighbouring twin city of Rawalpindi, the greater Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area is the third largest conurbation in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants.[4] Since its foundation, Islamabad has attracted people from all over Pakistan, making it one of the most cosmopolitan and urbanised cities of Pakistan. As the capital, Islamabad is the seat of the Government of Pakistan; the Presidential Palace (Aiwan-e-Sadr) is also located here. Etymology[edit] History[edit] Early history[edit] Islamabad Zones

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