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Book of the Dead

Book of the Dead
This detail scene, from the Papyrus of Hunefer (ca. 1275 BCE), shows the scribe Hunefer's heart being weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the jackal-headed Anubis. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart equals exactly the weight of the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.[1] The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw[2] is translated as "Book of Coming Forth by Day".[3] Another translation would be "Book of emerging forth into the Light". The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not papyrus. Development[edit] Part of the Pyramid Texts, a precursor of the Book of the Dead, inscribed on the tomb of Teti Spells[edit] Organization[edit] Related:  Upon This Rock

Book of the Earth Fifth division: A scene from "Book of Caverns" from the tomb of Ramses V./VI. (KV9, chamber E, right wall) Original Sources[edit] The scenes were found on all of the walls of the tombs of Ramesses VI and Ramesses VII. Jean-François Champollion was the first one to publish the scenes and texts from the tomb of Ramesses VI in his Monuments de l'Egypte where he deciphered the hieroglyphs depicted in the tombs. Structure of the Book[edit] Although it is uncertain, it is believed that the surviving panels of the original composition were each divided into three registers. Scholars believe that the Book consists of two halves with one half containing scenes of punishment. The Book's Content[edit] The Book is divided into five main components; Part E, Part D, Part C, Part B, and Part A. Part E[edit] In this part, there are six gods shown praying to a sun disc at burial mounds. Part D[edit] Part D is probably the beginning of the composition, where most of the setting is introduced. Part C[edit]

Truth Be Known | Acharya S | D.M. Murdock Book of the Netherworld The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld is a two-part ancient Egyptian funerary text found on the second shrine in KV62, the tomb of the pharaoh Tutankhamun. It is speculated that the book covers the creation and rebirth of the sun; however, the true meaning of the book is not known due to the use of cryptographic illustrations to preserve the secrecy of the formulae. The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld is broken into three sections that incorporate other funerary texts, such as the Book of the Dead and the Amduat. Other enigmatic books have been found in the tombs of Ramesses IX and Ramesses V. References[edit] Jump up ^ Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife by Hornung, Erik 1999Cornell University PressJump up ^ Life and Death of a Pharaoh: Tutankhamen by Desrochnes-Noblecourt published 1963 New YorkJump up ^ An Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld From A Shrine of Tutankhamun by Taylor Ray Ellison Bibliography[edit] Hornung, Erik (1999).

Speculum Humanae Salvationis Jacob's Ladder from a Speculum of c. 1430, pre-figuring the Ascension, right The Ascension from the same manuscript, see left. Danish Royal Library Contents[edit] The writing of the text follows an exact scheme: twenty-five lines per column, with two columns per page, one under each miniature, so a hundred lines per standard chapter. Dating and manuscript copies[edit] Miniature from a manuscript Speculum. The work originated between 1309, as a reference to the Pope being at Avignon indicates, and 1324, the date on two copies.[3] A preface, probably from the original manuscript, says the author does not give his name out of humility, though numerous suggestions have been made.[4] He was almost certainly a cleric, and there is evidence he was a Dominican.[5] Ludolph of Saxony is a leading candidate for authorship, and Vincent of Beauvais has also been suggested.[6] The first versions are naturally in illuminated manuscript form, and in Latin. Printed editions[edit] Iconographic influence[edit]

Book of Gates Another rendering. Categories[edit] The most famous part of the Book of Gates today refers to the different races of humanity known to the Egyptians, dividing them up into four categories that are now conventionally labelled "Egyptians", "Asiatics", "Libyans", and "Nubians". The text and images associated with the Book of Gates appear in many tombs of the New Kingdom, including all the pharaonic tombs between Horemheb and Ramesses VII. The goddesses listed in the Book of Gates each have different titles, and wear different coloured clothes, but are identical in all other respects, wearing a five pointed star above their heads. The titles of the goddesses[edit] See also[edit] Book of the Dead References[edit] Jump up ^ Hornung, Erik. External links[edit] Sacred texts - Gate

Book of Caverns Fifth division: A scene from tomb of Ramses V./VI. (KV9, chamber E, right wall) The Book of Caverns is an important Ancient Egyptian netherworld book of the New Kingdom.[1] Like all other netherworld books, it is also attested on the inside of kings’ tombs for the benefit of the deceased. It describes the journey of the sun god Ra through the six caverns of the underworld, focusing on the interaction between the sun god and the inhabitants of the netherworld, including rewards for the righteous and punishments for the enemies of the worldly order, those who fail their judgment in the afterlife. The Book of Caverns is one of the best sources of information about the Egyptian concept of hell.[2] The Book of Caverns originated in the 13th century BC in the Ramesside Period.[3] The earliest known version of this work is on the left hand wall of the Osireion in Abydos.[1] Later it appears in the tomb of Ramesses IV in the Valley of the Kings. Content[edit] Structure[edit] History[edit]

Books of Breathing Mormon scholar Hugh Nibley, who was appointed by the LDS church to learn Egyptian in order to defend the claim that Joseph Smith had found and translated a document from the hand of Abraham, gives a short description of the Book of Breathings; "For the Book of Breathings is before all else, as Bonnet observes, a composite, made up of "compilations and excerpts from older funerary sources and mortuary formulas." [H. Bonnet, Reallexikon der Egyptischen Religionsgeschichte (Berlin, 1952), p. 59.] From the Second Book of Breathings, hardly distinguishable from it, it blends off into such earlier writings as "The Book of Passing through the Eternities," the "Amduat," and the "Book of Gates," in which we recognize most of the ideas and even phrases of the "Sensen" Papyrus. [W. See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] Hornung, Erik (1999).

Memento mori Earthly Vanity and Divine Salvation by Hans Memling. This triptych contrasts earthly beauty and luxury with the prospect of death and hell. The outer panels of Rogier van der Weyden's Braque Triptych shows the skull of the patron displayed in the inner panels. The bones rest on a brick, a symbol of his former industry and achievement.[1] Memento mori (Latin: "remember (that you have) to die"[2]) is the medieval Latin theory and practice of reflection on mortality, especially as a means of considering the vanity of earthly life and the transient nature of all earthly goods and pursuits. In art, memento mori are artistic or symbolic reminders of mortality.[2] In the European Christian art context, "the expression... developed with the growth of Christianity, which emphasized Heaven, Hell, and salvation of the soul in the afterlife Historic usage[edit] Classical[edit] Europe — Medieval through Victorian[edit] Prince of OrangeRené of Châlon died in 1544 at age 25. Use by religious[edit]

Hell Hell - detail from a fresco in the medieval church St. Nicolas in Raduil, Bulgaria In many mythological, folklore and religious traditions, hell is a place of eternal torment in an afterlife, often after resurrection. It is viewed by most Abrahamic traditions as a place of punishment.[1] Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations. Typically these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's external surface and often include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Etymology and Germanic mythology Religion, mythology, and folklore Hell appears in several mythologies and religions. Punishments Punishment in Hell typically corresponds to sins committed during life. Polytheism Ancient Egypt Modern understanding of Egyptian notions of hell relies on six ancient texts:[16] Ancient Near East Greek Europe Asia Africa Oceania Native American Abrahamic Judaism

Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul Ib (heart)[edit] To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word ib, Awt-ib: happiness (literally, wideness of heart), Xak-ib: estranged (literally, truncated of heart). This word was transcribed by Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. Sheut (shadow)[edit] A person's shadow or silhouette, Sheut (šwt in Egyptian), is always present. The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black. Ren (name)[edit] Ba[edit] Ba takes the form of a bird with a human head. The 'Ba' (bꜣ) was everything that makes an individual unique, similar to the notion of 'personality'. In the Coffin Texts one form of the Ba that comes into existence after death is corporeal, eating, drinking and copulating. Ka[edit] Akh[edit]

Book of Abraham A portion of the papyri considered by some to be source of the Book of Abraham. The difference between Egyptologists' translation and Joseph Smith's interpretations have caused considerable controversy. The Book of Abraham is an 1835 work produced by Joseph Smith[1] that he said was based on Egyptian papyri purchased from a traveling mummy exhibition. The Book of Abraham papyri were thought lost in the 1871 Great Chicago Fire. Origin[edit] Several papyri and eleven mummies were discovered near the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes by Antonio Lebolo between 1818 and 1822. In July 1835, Chandler brought the remaining four mummies and associated papyri to Kirtland, Ohio, then home of the Latter Day Saints. Smith ostensibly translated the majority of the Book of Abraham text in July and a few days in November 1835 and did some minor revisions in March 1842.[6] By October, he had also begun Smith's journal entry for October 1, 1835, reads: Content[edit] Book of Abraham text[edit] Facsimiles[edit]

Vanitas Composition of flowers, less obvious style of Vanitas by Abraham Mignon in the National Museum in Warsaw. Barely visible amid vivid and perilous nature (snakes, poisonous mushrooms) a bird skeleton is a symbol of vanity and shortness of life. In the arts, vanitas is a type of symbolic work of art especially associated with still life painting in Flanders and the Netherlands in the 16th and 17th centuries, though also common in other places and periods. Themes and motives[edit] Vanitas themes were common in medieval funerary art, with most surviving examples in sculpture. Vanitas in modern times[edit] C. Uses outside visual art[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Many Interacting Worlds theory: Scientists propose existence and interaction of parallel worlds Griffith University academics are challenging the foundations of quantum science with a radical new theory based on the existence of, and interactions between, parallel universes. In a paper published in the prestigious journal Physical Review X, Professor Howard Wiseman and Dr Michael Hall from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics, and Dr Dirk-Andre Deckert from the University of California, take interacting parallel worlds out of the realm of science fiction and into that of hard science. The team proposes that parallel universes really exist, and that they interact. That is, rather than evolving independently, nearby worlds influence one another by a subtle force of repulsion. Quantum theory is needed to explain how the universe works at the microscopic scale, and is believed to apply to all matter. As the eminent American theoretical physicist Richard Feynman once noted: "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics." Explore further: A quantum leap forward?