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Book of the Dead

Book of the Dead
This detail scene, from the Papyrus of Hunefer (ca. 1275 BCE), shows the scribe Hunefer's heart being weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the jackal-headed Anubis. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart equals exactly the weight of the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.[1] The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw[2] is translated as "Book of Coming Forth by Day".[3] Another translation would be "Book of emerging forth into the Light". The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not papyrus. Development[edit] Part of the Pyramid Texts, a precursor of the Book of the Dead, inscribed on the tomb of Teti Spells[edit] Organization[edit] Related:  Upon This Rock

Book of the Earth Fifth division: A scene from "Book of Caverns" from the tomb of Ramses V./VI. (KV9, chamber E, right wall) Original Sources[edit] The scenes were found on all of the walls of the tombs of Ramesses VI and Ramesses VII. Jean-François Champollion was the first one to publish the scenes and texts from the tomb of Ramesses VI in his Monuments de l'Egypte where he deciphered the hieroglyphs depicted in the tombs. Structure of the Book[edit] Although it is uncertain, it is believed that the surviving panels of the original composition were each divided into three registers. Scholars believe that the Book consists of two halves with one half containing scenes of punishment. The Book's Content[edit] The Book is divided into five main components; Part E, Part D, Part C, Part B, and Part A. Part E[edit] In this part, there are six gods shown praying to a sun disc at burial mounds. Part D[edit] Part D is probably the beginning of the composition, where most of the setting is introduced. Part C[edit]

Book of the Netherworld The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld is a two-part ancient Egyptian funerary text found on the second shrine in KV62, the tomb of the pharaoh Tutankhamun. It is speculated that the book covers the creation and rebirth of the sun; however, the true meaning of the book is not known due to the use of cryptographic illustrations to preserve the secrecy of the formulae. The Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld is broken into three sections that incorporate other funerary texts, such as the Book of the Dead and the Amduat. Other enigmatic books have been found in the tombs of Ramesses IX and Ramesses V. References[edit] Jump up ^ Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife by Hornung, Erik 1999Cornell University PressJump up ^ Life and Death of a Pharaoh: Tutankhamen by Desrochnes-Noblecourt published 1963 New YorkJump up ^ An Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld From A Shrine of Tutankhamun by Taylor Ray Ellison Bibliography[edit] Hornung, Erik (1999).

Book of Gates Another rendering. Categories[edit] The most famous part of the Book of Gates today refers to the different races of humanity known to the Egyptians, dividing them up into four categories that are now conventionally labelled "Egyptians", "Asiatics", "Libyans", and "Nubians". The text and images associated with the Book of Gates appear in many tombs of the New Kingdom, including all the pharaonic tombs between Horemheb and Ramesses VII. The goddesses listed in the Book of Gates each have different titles, and wear different coloured clothes, but are identical in all other respects, wearing a five pointed star above their heads. The titles of the goddesses[edit] See also[edit] Book of the Dead References[edit] Jump up ^ Hornung, Erik. External links[edit] Sacred texts - Gate

Book of Caverns Fifth division: A scene from tomb of Ramses V./VI. (KV9, chamber E, right wall) The Book of Caverns is an important Ancient Egyptian netherworld book of the New Kingdom.[1] Like all other netherworld books, it is also attested on the inside of kings’ tombs for the benefit of the deceased. It describes the journey of the sun god Ra through the six caverns of the underworld, focusing on the interaction between the sun god and the inhabitants of the netherworld, including rewards for the righteous and punishments for the enemies of the worldly order, those who fail their judgment in the afterlife. The Book of Caverns is one of the best sources of information about the Egyptian concept of hell.[2] The Book of Caverns originated in the 13th century BC in the Ramesside Period.[3] The earliest known version of this work is on the left hand wall of the Osireion in Abydos.[1] Later it appears in the tomb of Ramesses IV in the Valley of the Kings. Content[edit] Structure[edit] History[edit]

Hell Hell - detail from a fresco in the medieval church St. Nicolas in Raduil, Bulgaria In many mythological, folklore and religious traditions, hell is a place of eternal torment in an afterlife, often after resurrection. It is viewed by most Abrahamic traditions as a place of punishment.[1] Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations. Typically these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's external surface and often include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Etymology and Germanic mythology Religion, mythology, and folklore Hell appears in several mythologies and religions. Punishments Punishment in Hell typically corresponds to sins committed during life. Polytheism Ancient Egypt Modern understanding of Egyptian notions of hell relies on six ancient texts:[16] Ancient Near East Greek Europe Asia Africa Oceania Native American Abrahamic Judaism

Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul Ib (heart)[edit] To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word ib, Awt-ib: happiness (literally, wideness of heart), Xak-ib: estranged (literally, truncated of heart). This word was transcribed by Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. Sheut (shadow)[edit] A person's shadow or silhouette, Sheut (šwt in Egyptian), is always present. The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black. Ren (name)[edit] Ba[edit] Ba takes the form of a bird with a human head. The 'Ba' (bꜣ) was everything that makes an individual unique, similar to the notion of 'personality'. In the Coffin Texts one form of the Ba that comes into existence after death is corporeal, eating, drinking and copulating. Ka[edit] Akh[edit]

Many Interacting Worlds theory: Scientists propose existence and interaction of parallel worlds Griffith University academics are challenging the foundations of quantum science with a radical new theory based on the existence of, and interactions between, parallel universes. In a paper published in the prestigious journal Physical Review X, Professor Howard Wiseman and Dr Michael Hall from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics, and Dr Dirk-Andre Deckert from the University of California, take interacting parallel worlds out of the realm of science fiction and into that of hard science. The team proposes that parallel universes really exist, and that they interact. That is, rather than evolving independently, nearby worlds influence one another by a subtle force of repulsion. Quantum theory is needed to explain how the universe works at the microscopic scale, and is believed to apply to all matter. As the eminent American theoretical physicist Richard Feynman once noted: "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics." Explore further: A quantum leap forward?

Duat This article is about the Egyptian underworld. For the evergreen tree, see Jambul. For the aviation weather service, see DUATS. In Egyptian mythology, Duat (pronounced "do-aht") (also Tuat and Tuaut or Akert, Amenthes, Amenti, or Neter-khertet) is the realm of the dead. What we know of the Duat principally derives from funerary texts such as Book of Gates, Book of Caverns, Coffin Texts, Amduat and the Book of the Dead. A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus showing the Weighing of the Heart in Duat where Anubis can be seen on the far right, the scales are shown with the feather balance, and Ammit awaits hearts that she must devour – the presence of Osiris at the gateway to the paradise of Aaru dates the papyrus to a late tradition of the myth. The geography of Duat is similar in outline to the world the Egyptians knew. If the deceased successfully passed these unpleasant demons, he or she would reach the Weighing of the Heart. References Bibliography Faulkner, R.

Scientists at Large Hadron Collider hope to make contact with PARALLEL UNIVERSE in days The staggeringly complex LHC ‘atom smasher’ at the CERN centre in Geneva, Switzerland, will be fired up to its highest energy levels ever in a bid to detect - or even create - miniature black holes. If successful a completely new universe will be revealed – rewriting not only the physics books but the philosophy books too. It is even possible that gravity from our own universe may ‘leak’ into this parallel universe, scientists at the LHC say. The experiment is sure to inflame alarmist critics of the LHC, many of whom initially warned the high energy particle collider would spell the end of our universe with the creation a black hole of its own. But so far Geneva remains intact and comfortably outside the event horizon. Indeed the LHC has been spectacularly successful. But next week’s experiment is considered to be a game changer. “We predict that gravity can leak into extra dimensions, and if it does, then miniature black holes can be produced at the LHC.

Books of Breathing Mormon scholar Hugh Nibley, who was appointed by the LDS church to learn Egyptian in order to defend the claim that Joseph Smith had found and translated a document from the hand of Abraham, gives a short description of the Book of Breathings; "For the Book of Breathings is before all else, as Bonnet observes, a composite, made up of "compilations and excerpts from older funerary sources and mortuary formulas." [H. Bonnet, Reallexikon der Egyptischen Religionsgeschichte (Berlin, 1952), p. 59.] From the Second Book of Breathings, hardly distinguishable from it, it blends off into such earlier writings as "The Book of Passing through the Eternities," the "Amduat," and the "Book of Gates," in which we recognize most of the ideas and even phrases of the "Sensen" Papyrus. [W. See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] Hornung, Erik (1999).

Excalibur Excalibur is the legendary sword of King Arthur, sometimes attributed with magical powers or associated with the rightful sovereignty of Great Britain. Sometimes Excalibur and the Sword in the Stone (the proof of Arthur's lineage) are said to be the same weapon, but in most versions they are considered separate. The sword was associated with the Arthurian legend very early. In Welsh, the sword is called Caledfwlch; in Cornish, the sword is called Calesvol. Forms and etymologies[edit] Caledfwlch appears in several early Welsh works, including the poem Preiddeu Annwfn and the prose tale Culhwch and Olwen, a work associated with the Mabinogion and written perhaps around 1100. In Chretien de Troyes's Perceval, Gawain carries Escalibor and it is stated, "for at his belt hung Excalibor, the finest sword that there was, which sliced through iron as through wood"[4] ("Qu'il avoit cainte Escalibor, la meillor espee qui fust, qu'ele trenche fer come fust Excalibur and the Sword in the Stone[edit]

Amduat The Amduat[pronunciation?] (literally "That Which Is In the Afterworld", also translated as "Text of the Hidden Chamber Which is in the Underworld" and "Book of What is in the Underworld")[1] is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom. Like many funerary texts, it was found written on the inside of the pharaoh's tomb for reference. Unlike other funerary texts, however, it was reserved only for pharaohs (until the 21st Dynasty almost exclusively) or very favored nobility.[2] It tells the story of Ra, the Egyptian sun god who travels through the underworld, from the time when the sun sets in the west and rises again in the east. It is said that the dead Pharaoh is taking this same journey, ultimately to become one with Ra and live forever. The underworld is divided into twelve hours of the night, each representing different allies and enemies for the Pharaoh/sun god to encounter. The hours[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] Forman, Werner and Stephen Quirke. (1996).

Why Are So Many People Snobby About Fantasy Fiction? Kazuo Ishiguro, who won the Booker prize in 1989 for his novel The Remains of the Day, is one of the literary world’s most respected novelists. It raised eyebrows in 2005 when he published Never Let Me Go, a dystopian science fiction novel about children who discover that they are clones destined to be harvested for their organs, though the book is now regarded as one of his best works. But when the literary world learned that his new book, The Buried Giant, is an Arthurian fantasy about the quest to kill a dragon, it didn’t just raise eyebrows—it made heads explode. “People are perfectly entitled to read my book and say they don’t like it,” he says in Episode 145 of the Geek’s Guide to the Galaxy podcast. Ishiguro, who was born in Japan, was raised on samurai stories full of demons and shape-shifters, and avidly reads each new translation of The Iliad and The Odyssey, ancient tales of warriors, gods, and monsters. Kazuo Ishiguro on “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”:

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