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Fine-tuned Universe

Fine-tuned Universe

Ekpyrotic universe The ekpyrotic universe, or ekpyrotic scenario, is a cosmological model of the origin and shape of the universe. The name comes from a Stoic term ekpyrosis (Ancient Greek ἐκπύρωσις ekpurōsis) meaning conflagration or in Stoic usage "conversion into fire".[1] The ekpyrotic model of the universe is an alternative to the standard cosmic inflation model for the very early universe; both models accommodate the standard Big Bang Lambda-CDM model of our universe.[2][3] The ekpyrotic model is a precursor to, and part of, some cyclic models. The ekpyrotic model came out of work by Neil Turok and Paul Steinhardt and maintains that the universe did not start in a singularity, but came about from the collision of two branes. This collision avoids the primordial singularity and superluminal expansion of spacetime while preserving nearly scale-free density fluctuations and other features of the observed universe. See also[edit] Notes and references[edit] Further reading[edit] P.

Cosmological principle Astronomer William Keel explains: The cosmological principle is usually stated formally as 'Viewed on a sufficiently large scale, the properties of the Universe are the same for all observers.' This amounts to the strongly philosophical statement that the part of the Universe which we can see is a fair sample, and that the same physical laws apply throughout. In essence, this in a sense says that the Universe is knowable and is playing fair with scientists.[1] The cosmological principle contains three implicit qualifications and two testable consequences. The second implicit qualification is that "looks the same" does not mean physical structures necessarily, but the effects of physical laws in observable phenomena. The cosmological principle is first clearly asserted in the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) of Isaac Newton. Implications[edit] Justification[edit] Criticism[edit] the “cosmological principles” were, I fear, dogmas that should not have been proposed.

Ultimate fate of the universe The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology. Many possible fates are predicted by rival scientific theories, including futures of both finite and infinite duration. Once the notion that the universe started with a rapid inflation nicknamed the Big Bang became accepted by the majority of scientists,[1] the ultimate fate of the universe became a valid cosmological question, one depending upon the physical properties of the mass/energy in the universe, its average density, and the rate of expansion. There is a growing consensus among cosmologists that the universe is flat and will continue to expand forever.[2][3] The ultimate fate of the universe is dependent on the shape of the universe and what role dark energy will play as the universe ages. Emerging scientific basis[edit] Theory[edit] The theoretical scientific exploration of the ultimate fate of the universe became possible with Albert Einstein's 1916 theory of general relativity. Observation[edit] Big Rip[edit]

Hindu cycle of the universe See also Hindu units of measurement. This is similar to the Cyclical Universe Theory in physical cosmology. The Big Bang is described as the birth of the universe (Brahma), the life of the universe then follows (Vishnu), and the Big Crunch would be described as the destruction of the universe (Shiva). In a number of stories from the Puranas the continual creation and destruction of the universe is equated to the outwards and inwards breaths of the gigantic cosmic Maha Vishnu. Hindu thesis of creation[edit] Initially everything was unmanifested and was one without a second . In vishnu purana ,It is stated that the purusha(GOD) manifests himself into three forms to maintain the material realm or the manifested realm . Karnodakasayi Vishnu expands himself as Garbhodakasayivisnu and enters into each universe and from Garbhodakasayivisnu originates bhrama from the naval . Hindu viewpoint of modern cosmology[edit] Even string theory finds a place in the Hindu texts. The end of the universe[edit]

Multiverse (religion) In religion a multiverse is the concept of a plurality of universes. Some religious cosmologies propose that the cosmos is not the only one that exists. The concept of infinite worlds is mentioned in the Apannaka Jataka: "Disciples," the Buddha said "nowhere between the lowest of hells below and the highest heaven above, nowhere in all the infinite worlds that stretch right and left, is there the equal, much less the superior, of a Buddha. Incalculable is the excellence which springs from obeying the Precepts and from other virtuous conduct." - Apannaka Jataka The concept of multiple universes is mentioned many times in Hindu Puranic literature, such as in the Bhagavata Purana: Every universe is covered by seven layers — earth, water, fire, air, sky, the total energy and false ego — each ten times greater than the previous one. The number of universes seems to be uncountable according to the Puranic literature: Analogies to describe multiple universes also exist in the Puranic literature:

Buddhist cosmology Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe according to the Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. Introduction[edit] The self-consistent Buddhist cosmology which is presented in commentaries and works of Abhidharma in both Theravāda (31 planes, Sakwala Vibhanga) and Mahāyāna traditions, is the end-product of an analysis and reconciliation of cosmological comments found in the Buddhist sūtra and vinaya traditions. Buddhist cosmology can be divided into two related kinds: spatial cosmology, which describes the arrangement of the various worlds within the universe, and temporal cosmology, which describes how those worlds come into existence, and how they pass away. Spatial cosmology[edit] Spatial cosmology can also be divided into two branches. Vertical cosmology[edit] In the vertical cosmology, the universe exists of many worlds (lokāḥ) – one might say "planes/realms" – stacked one upon the next in layers. Formless Realm (Ārūpyadhātu)[edit]

Hindu cosmology In Hindu cosmology the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. The Hindu literature, such as Vedas, Puranas, cites the creation of universe. They describe the aspects of evolution, astronomy, etc. Description[edit] The Hindu cosmology and timeline is the closest to modern scientific timelines[1] and even more which might indicate that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything,[2] but just the start of the present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes.[3] The Rig Veda questions the origin of the cosmos in: "Neither being (sat) nor non-being was as yet. Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology. Map 2: Intermediate neighbourhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology. Map 3: Local neighbourhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology. Overview of Yugas: Further elaborations from the Vedic texts[edit] Rig Veda[edit] The Puranas[edit] Multiverse in Hinduism[edit] See also[edit]

The All The universe understood in relation to the All[edit] The following is commentary on possibilities about The All but not anything necessarily accepted by Hermeticists in general. According to The Kybalion, The All is a bit more complicated than simply being the sum total of the universe. The Three Initiates (see The Kybalion) strongly caution that we restrain from simply declaring "I am God" for oversimplification purposes. The All's mind can be seen as infinitely more powerful and vast than any of us could hope to achieve.[5] Therefore, it may be capable of keeping track of each and every particle across the expanse of the Universe, as well as maintain symbolism that applies to many lesser entities such as that seen in astrology and numerology. Because of this view, some Hermetics also practice theurgy. Explaining why The All acts[edit] Questions as to why God acts or doesn't act is an ancient question with many divergent answers. The All has something to gain by acting[edit] [edit]

Dyson's eternal intelligence The intelligent beings would begin by storing a finite amount of energy. They then use half (or any fraction) of this energy to power their thought. When the energy gradient created by unleashing this fraction of the stored fuel was exhausted, the beings would enter a state of zero-energy-consumption until the universe cooled. Once the universe had cooled sufficiently, half of the remaining half (one quarter of the original energy) of the intelligent beings' fuel reserves would once again be released, powering a brief period of thought once more. This would continue, with smaller and smaller amounts of energy being released. Two recent observations have presented problems for Dyson's scenario. However, even if intelligence cannot continue its own survival indefinitely in an ever-expanding Universe, it may be able to create a `baby universe' via a wormhole in spacetime, add some DNA[original research?] See also[edit] References[edit]

Cyclic model A cyclic model (or oscillating model) is any of several cosmological models in which the universe follows infinite, or indefinite, self-sustaining cycles. For example, the oscillating universe theory briefly considered by Albert Einstein in 1930 theorized a universe following an eternal series of oscillations, each beginning with a big bang and ending with a big crunch; in the interim, the universe would expand for a period of time before the gravitational attraction of matter causes it to collapse back in and undergo a bounce. Overview[edit] In the 1920s, theoretical physicists, most notably Albert Einstein, considered the possibility of a cyclic model for the universe as an (everlasting) alternative to the model of an expanding universe. One new cyclic model is a brane cosmology model of the creation of the universe, derived from the earlier ekpyrotic model. Other cyclic models include Conformal cyclic cosmology and Loop quantum cosmology. The Steinhardt–Turok model[edit] See also[edit]