Von Neumann entropy In quantum statistical mechanics, the von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical Gibbs entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanics. For a quantum-mechanical system described by a density matrix ρ, the von Neumann entropy is then the von Neumann entropy is merely In this form, S can be seen to amount to the information theory Shannon entropy. Background John von Neumann rigorously established the mathematical framework for quantum mechanics in his work Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics−−Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik. In it, he provided a theory of measurement, where the usual notion of wave-function collapse is described as an irreversible process (the so-called von Neumann or projective measurement). The density matrix was introduced, with different motivations, by von Neumann and by Lev Landau. Expectation values of operators which are not diagonal involve the phases of the quantum amplitudes. .
Athene’s Theory of Everything Bachir "Chiren" Boumaaza, aka Athene, is an extravagant Internet celebrity, with over 240 million upload views, and a professional gamer. If you haven't heard of him, he's a record holder in World of Warcraft and online poker, and plays the main character in a series of videos on a popular YouTube channel with well over 340,000 subscribers. Athene is known for crashing gaming servers, with the aid of his massive army of followers, who just love to be part of the controversy and trouble Athene is so well known for. Over the past year, we haven't heard much from him, and it seemed as though he had fallen off the grid. Recently Chiren broke his silence, and announced that his disappearance was due to being very busy, conducting new research in the fields of quantum mechanics, general and special relativity, and neuroscience. He continued to say that this research is culminating in significant new discoveries that will be presented in a documentary named Athene's Theory of Everything.
Body Hyperspace Introduction. The article that follows this introduction featured in the science section of the 25th December 1999 edition of The Economist magazine. It gives a good idea of how hyperspace is treated in mainstream, leading edge physics. Hyperspace poses something of a dilemma for modern physics. On one hand it is very useful for explaining how the Universe is constructed at the very smallest level, and it even provides a useful concept for explaining what came "before" the beginning of time (click "stargate" for details µµµ). Mainstream physicists get around this problem by incorporating hyper-dimensional space into matter (and some of the fundamental forces) in the form of "structures" so small that they are incapable of interacting with the bigger picture of the 3-D Universe that we are aware of. The following Economist article describes an exception to this model that helps explain why gravity is such a weak force relative to the amount of matter in the Cosmos. c c c
Quantum dot Colloidal quantum dots irradiated with a UV light. Different sized quantum dots emit different color light due to quantum confinement. Researchers have studied applications for quantum dots in transistors, solar cells, LEDs, and diode lasers. They have also investigated quantum dots as agents for medical imaging and as possible qubits in quantum computing. Electronic characteristics of a quantum dot are closely related to its size and shape. Quantum confinement in semiconductors 3D confined electron wave functions in a quantum dot. In a semiconductor crystallite whose diameter is smaller than the size of its exciton Bohr radius, the excitons are squeezed, leading to quantum confinement. Splitting of energy levels for small quantum dots due to the quantum confinement effect. Fluorescence occurs when an excited electron relaxes to the ground state and combines with the hole. Band gap energy Confinement energy The exciton entity can be modeled using the particle in the box.
the observer effect Deepak Chopra: Michio Kaku Interview By Deepak Chopra Michio Kaku interview on Deepak Chopra Wellness Radio-Sirius XM September 19, 2009 Deepak Chopra: My very special guest today is Dr. Michio Kaku and Dr. MK: Deepak, it's a real honor to be on your show. DC: And you know we're going to talk about the unified field theory and we're also going to talk about of course your book towards the end of our show I want to ask you a few questions about the world of consciousness in nature. MK: That's right. DC: What the basis for your book is, that if it does not violate the laws of mathematics or physics then it is in the realm of possibility, really? MK: That's right. DC: And therefore will at some point become technologies. MK: That's right. DC: (laughs) Okay. MK: The first level is class one, which are possible props within this century, in this ability, which we're probably going to have very soon in the next few decades. DC: Do you claim to underestimate that you know? MK: Okay. DC: See the part that didn't excite me is the war technology. MK.
Hyperspace From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hyperspace may refer to: In fiction: In technology: Internet, the World Wide Web In mathematics: In physics: Minkowski space, a concept, often referred to by science fiction writers as hyperspace, that incorrectly refers to the 4-dimensional spacetime of relativity In media: Other uses: What the Bleep Do We Know!? This hard-to-describe movie, which combines talking-head documentary footage with a fictional narrative, attempts to explain quantum physics in terms most audiences can understand. The extent to which it succeeds will largely be the extent to which a viewer grasps the complex theories being addressed in those terms. Does matter exist? This documentary is a radical departure from convention. It's a documentary. This documentary is available for preview only.
Back From the Future | Subatomic Particles Paul Davies, a cosmologist at Arizona State University in Tempe, admires the fact that Aharonov’s team has always striven to verify its claims experimentally. “This isn’t airy-fairy philosophy—these are real experiments,” he says. Davies has now joined forces with the group to investigate the framework’s implications for the origin of the cosmos (See “Does the Universe Have a Destiny?” below). Vlatko Vedral, a quantum physicist at the University of Oxford, agrees that the experiments confirm the existence and power of weak measurements. For Tollaksen, though, the results are awe-inspiring and a bit scary. Tollaksen ponders the philosophical dilemma. The free will issue is something that Tollaksen has been tackling mathematically with Popescu. I put it to Tollaksen straight: This finding seems to make a mockery of everything we have discussed so far. Tollaksen is smiling; this is clearly an argument he has been through many times. Aharonov remains circumspect. And Tollaksen?
Quantum mechanics Solution to Schrödinger's equation for the hydrogen atom at different energy levels. The brighter areas represent a higher probability of finding an electron Quantum mechanics gradually arose from Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem (reported 1859) and Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which offered a quantum-based theory to explain the photoelectric effect (reported 1887). Early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. Important applications of quantum mechanical theory include superconducting magnets, LEDs and the laser, the transistor and semiconductors such as the microprocessor, medical and research imaging such as MRI and electron microscopy, and explanations for many biological and physical phenomena. History In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode rays. Among the first to study quantum phenomena in nature were Arthur Compton, C.V. where h is Planck's constant.
M-theory M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory. The existence of such a theory was first conjectured by Edward Witten at the string theory conference at the University of Southern California in the summer of 1995. Witten's announcement initiated a flurry of research activity known as the second superstring revolution. Background Quantum gravity and strings One of the deepest problems in modern physics is the problem of quantum gravity. Number of dimensions In everyday life, there are three familiar dimensions of space (up/down, left/right, and forward/backward), and there is one dimension of time (later/earlier). Despite the obvious relevance of four-dimensional spacetime for describing the physical world, there are several reasons why physicists often consider theories in other dimensions. Dualities Main articles: S-duality and T-duality A diagram of string theory dualities. and winding number in the dual description. .
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