Intelligence Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in non-human animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. §History of the term Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. §Definitions The definition of intelligence is controversial. From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. Besides those definitions, psychology and learning researchers also have suggested definitions of intelligence such as: What is considered intelligent varies with culture. §Human intelligence §Animal and plant intelligence §See also
Mediator : que peut-on attendre de la mission parlementaire ? LE MONDE pour Le Monde.fr | | Par Chat modéré par Emmanuelle Chevallereau Koala : Le ministre de la santé, Xavier Bertrand, a annoncé, lundi 17 janvier, un projet de loi réformant le contrôle des médicaments "avant la fin de l'année", à la suite du scandale du Mediator, accusé d'avoir fait entre 500 et 2000 morts. Ne craignez-vous pas un effet d'annonce ? Non, franchement non, car l'opinion publique et la presse sont sensibilisées à ce point que cette hypothèse ne me paraît pas raisonnablement tenable. Pol : Vous avez été nommé mercredi 12 janvier président de la mission d'information sur le Mediator à l'Assemblée nationale. Demain, nous nous réunissons pour établir le calendrier des auditions. Guest : Je sais votre intérêt pour ces questions de santé publique, mais l'exemple récent des commissions sur la gestion de la grippe H1N1 me laisse dubitatif sur les résultats à attendre. Il est exact que le médecin référent avait été supprimé par réflexe idéologique.
g factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests. The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century. Mental tests may be designed to measure different aspects of cognition.
Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) can be defined as the ability to monitor one's own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. There are three models of EI. The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. The trait model as developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides, "encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report"  The final model, the mixed model is a combination of both ability and trait EI, focusing on EI being an array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance, as proposed by Daniel Goleman. It has been argued that EI is either just as important as one's intelligence quotient (IQ). History Definitions Ability model Measurement
Day and Night World Map +1 this page: Follow us on Google+: Like/share this page: Follow us on facebook: The map below shows the current position of the Sun and the Moon. See where the moon is over the horizon Map notes The day and night parts of the Earth shown are as of Saturday, April 12, 2014 at 00:08:00 UTC.The Sun's position is marked with this symbol: . Position of the Sun On Saturday, April 12, 2014 at 00:08:00 UTC the Sun is at its zenith at these coordinates: The ground speed of the movement is currently 458.76 meters/second, 1651.5 km/hour, 1026.2 miles/hour or 891.8 knots.The table below shows the Sun position compared to the time and date above: Position of the Moon On Saturday, April 12, 2014 at 00:08:00 UTC the Moon is at its zenith at these coordinates: The ground speed of the movement is currently 449.45 meters/second, 1618.0 km/hour, 1005.4 miles/hour or 873.7 knots.The table below shows the Moon position compared to the time and date above: Locations with the Sun near zenith Advertising
Fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic. It is necessary for all logical problem solving, e.g., in scientific, mathematical, and technical problem solving. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. Crystallized intelligence is one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as demonstrated largely through one's vocabulary and general knowledge. The terms are somewhat misleading because one is not a "crystallized" form of the other. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are thus correlated with each other, and most IQ tests attempt to measure both varieties. History Theoretical development Factor structure
Artificial nerve grafts made from spider silk : Neurophilosophy EVERY year, hundreds of thousands of people suffer from paralyzed limbs as a result of peripheral nerve injury. Recently, implantation of artificial nerve grafts has become the method of choice for repairing damaged peripheral nerves. Grafts can lead to some degree of functional recovery when a short segment of nerve is damaged. But they are of little use when it comes to regenerating nerves over distances greater than a few millimeters, and such injuries therefore often lead to permanent paralysis. Now though, surgeons from Germany have made what could be a significant advance in nerve tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a greater regenerative capacity than those in the central nervous system, but regenerating them properly is challenging. Conventionally, damaged peripheral nerves are treated either by suturing or by implantation of nerve grafts. These problems can potentially be overcome by using nerve grafts made from biodegradable materials. Radtke, C. et al. (2011).
Triarchic theory of intelligence Different components of information processing Schematic illustrating one trial of each stimulus pool in the Sternberg task: letter, word, object, spatial, grating. Sternberg associated the workings of the mind with a series of components. The metacomponents are executive processes used in problem solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our mind. Sternberg’s next set of components, performance components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the metacomponents dictate. The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition components, are used in obtaining new information. Whereas Sternberg explains that the basic information processing components underlying the three parts of his triarchic theory are the same, different contexts and different tasks require different kind of intelligence (Sternberg, 2001). Componential / Analytical Subtheory Sternberg associated the componential subtheory with analytical giftedness. Challenges
Intellectual giftedness Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. It is a characteristic of children, variously defined, that motivates differences in school programming. It is thought to persist as a trait into adult life, with various consequences studied in longitudinal studies of giftedness over the last century. There is no generally agreed definition of giftedness for either children or adults, but most school placement decisions and most longitudinal studies over the course of individual lives have been based on IQ in the top 2 percent of the population, that is above IQ 130. The various definitions of intellectual giftedness include either general high ability or specific abilities. For example, by some definitions an intellectually gifted person may have a striking talent for mathematics without equally strong language skills. Identifying giftedness Overview Definitions of giftedness In Identifying Gifted Children: A Practical Guide, Susan K.
Erratic Phenomena Systems thinking Impression of systems thinking about society A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior). Natural systems include biological entities, ocean currents, the climate, the solar system and ecosystems. Designed systems include airplanes, software systems, technologies and machines of all kinds, government agencies and business systems. Systems Thinking has at least some roots in the General System Theory that was advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940s and furthered by Ross Ashby in the 1950s. The term Systems Thinking is sometimes used as a broad catch-all heading for the process of understanding how systems behave, interact with their environment and influence each other. Systems thinking has been applied to problem solving, by viewing "problems" as parts of an overall system, rather than reacting to specific parts, outcomes or events and potentially contributing to further development of unintended consequences.