Intelligence Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in non-human animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. §History of the term Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. §Definitions The definition of intelligence is controversial. From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. Besides those definitions, psychology and learning researchers also have suggested definitions of intelligence such as: What is considered intelligent varies with culture. §Human intelligence §Animal and plant intelligence §See also
g factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests. The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century. Mental tests may be designed to measure different aspects of cognition.
¿Cuáles son las bases biológicas de la superdotación? La superdotación se entiende como un alto potencial en todos los ámbitos de la inteligencia (por encima del percentil 75 o generalmente CI superior a 130) tanto de recursos como de capacidades cognitivas. Son sujetos con buena memoria, observadores, con amplia capacidad de manipulación y comprensión, son buenos solucionadores de problemas. Se entiende por lo general que la superdotación emerge como resultado de la interacción entre factores neurobiológicos, motivacionales y ambientales (es decir, interacción herencia- ambiente), por lo tanto el superdotado nace pero también se hace. Se empieza a ver a partir de los 12-13 años de forma más clara y solo 2 de cada 100 personas son superdotadas. Por lo general se entiende la superdotación como asociada a una mayor eficiencia en el flujo de la información de la red fronto-parietal y la utilización más efectiva de los medios en los procesos cognitivos. Las bases biológicas: Bases genéticas: Fuente: El cerebro superdotado, Amazings, El país.
Fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic. It is necessary for all logical problem solving, e.g., in scientific, mathematical, and technical problem solving. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. Crystallized intelligence is one’s lifetime of intellectual achievement, as demonstrated largely through one's vocabulary and general knowledge. The terms are somewhat misleading because one is not a "crystallized" form of the other. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are thus correlated with each other, and most IQ tests attempt to measure both varieties. History Theoretical development Factor structure
Triarchic theory of intelligence Different components of information processing Schematic illustrating one trial of each stimulus pool in the Sternberg task: letter, word, object, spatial, grating. Sternberg associated the workings of the mind with a series of components. The metacomponents are executive processes used in problem solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our mind. Sternberg’s next set of components, performance components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the metacomponents dictate. The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition components, are used in obtaining new information. Whereas Sternberg explains that the basic information processing components underlying the three parts of his triarchic theory are the same, different contexts and different tasks require different kind of intelligence (Sternberg, 2001). Componential / Analytical Subtheory Sternberg associated the componential subtheory with analytical giftedness. Challenges
Intellectual giftedness Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. It is a characteristic of children, variously defined, that motivates differences in school programming. It is thought to persist as a trait into adult life, with various consequences studied in longitudinal studies of giftedness over the last century. There is no generally agreed definition of giftedness for either children or adults, but most school placement decisions and most longitudinal studies over the course of individual lives have been based on IQ in the top 2 percent of the population, that is above IQ 130. The various definitions of intellectual giftedness include either general high ability or specific abilities. For example, by some definitions an intellectually gifted person may have a striking talent for mathematics without equally strong language skills. Identifying giftedness Overview Definitions of giftedness In Identifying Gifted Children: A Practical Guide, Susan K.
Systems thinking Impression of systems thinking about society A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior). Natural systems include biological entities, ocean currents, the climate, the solar system and ecosystems. Designed systems include airplanes, software systems, technologies and machines of all kinds, government agencies and business systems. Systems Thinking has at least some roots in the General System Theory that was advanced by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940s and furthered by Ross Ashby in the 1950s. The term Systems Thinking is sometimes used as a broad catch-all heading for the process of understanding how systems behave, interact with their environment and influence each other. Systems thinking has been applied to problem solving, by viewing "problems" as parts of an overall system, rather than reacting to specific parts, outcomes or events and potentially contributing to further development of unintended consequences.
Latent inhibition Theories The LI effect has received a number of theoretical interpretations. One class of theory holds that inconsequential stimulus pre-exposure results in reduced associability for that stimulus. The loss of associability has been attributed to a variety of mechanisms that reduce attention, which then must be reacquired in order for learning to proceed normally. Alternatively, it has been proposed that LI is a result of retrieval failure rather than acquisition failure. Such a position advocates that, following stimulus pre-exposure, the acquisition of the new association to the old stimulus proceeds normally. Variation LI is affected by many factors, one of the most important of which is context. Physiology The assumption that the attentional process that produces LI in normal subjects is dysfunctional in schizophrenia patients has stimulated considerable research, with humans, as well as with rats and mice. Pathology Low latent inhibition Notes
Savant syndrome Savant syndrome is a condition in which a person with a mental disability, such as an autism spectrum disorder, demonstrates profound and prodigious capacities or abilities far in excess of what would be considered normal. People with savant syndrome may have neurodevelopmental disorders, notably autism spectrum disorders, or brain injuries. The most dramatic examples of savant syndrome occur in individuals who score very low on IQ tests, but not always. In some very rare and extreme cases, some people with savant actually had an average to even a higher IQ while demonstrating exceptional skills or brilliance in specific areas, such as rapid calculation, art, memory, or musical ability. In spite of the name "syndrome", it is not recognized as a mental disorder nor as part of mental disorder in medical manuals such as the ICD-10 or the DSM-V. Characteristics Mechanism Savant syndrome is poorly understood. Epidemiology History See also
Multi-agent system Simple reflex agent Learning agent Concept Multi-agent systems consist of agents and their environment. Agents can be divided into different types: Very simple like: passive agents or agent without goals (like obstacle, apple or key in any simple simulation)Active agents with simple goals (like birds in flocking, or wolf–sheep in prey-predator model)Or very complex agents (like cognitive agent, which contain complex calculations) Environment also can be divided into: Virtual EnvironmentDiscrete EnvironmentContinuous Environment Characteristics The agents in a multi-agent system have several important characteristics: Autonomy: the agents are at least partially independent, self-aware, autonomousLocal views: no agent has a full global view of the system, or the system is too complex for an agent to make practical use of such knowledgeDecentralization: there is no designated controlling agent (or the system is effectively reduced to a monolithic system) Properties
Theory of multiple intelligences The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner articulated seven criteria for a behavior to be considered an intelligence. These were that the intelligences showed: potential for brain isolation by brain damage, place in evolutionary history, presence of core operations, susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), a distinct developmental progression, the existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, and support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings. Gardner argues intelligence is categorized into three primary or overarching categories, those of which are formulated by the abilities. The different abilities Musical–rhythmic and harmonic Interpersonal