WIMP (computing) Windows, icons, menus and pointer. Though the term has fallen into disuse, some use it incorrectly as an approximate synonym for graphical user interface (GUI). Any interface that uses graphics can be called a GUI, and WIMP systems derive from such systems. However, while all WIMP systems use graphics as a key element (the icon and pointer elements), and therefore are GUIs, the reverse is not true. Some GUIs are not based in windows, icons, menus, and pointers. WIMP interaction was developed at Xerox PARC (see Xerox Alto, developed in 1973) and popularized with Apple's introduction of the Macintosh in 1984, which added the concepts of the "menu bar" and extended window management. In a WIMP system: This style of system improves human–computer interaction (HCI) by emulating real-world interactions and providing better ease of use for non-technical people—both novice and power users. Jump up ^ Markoff, John (February 16, 2009). Alistair D.
Digital Visual Interface Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source to a display device, such as a computer monitor. It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content. The interface is designed to transmit uncompressed digital video and can be configured to support multiple modes such as DVI-D (digital only), DVI-A (analog only), or DVI-I (digital and analog). Featuring support for analog connections, the DVI specification is compatible with the VGA interface. This compatibility, along with other advantages, led to its widespread acceptance over competing digital display standards Plug and Display (P&D) and Digital Flat Panel (DFP). Although DVI is predominantly associated with computers, it is sometimes used in other consumer electronics such as television sets, video game consoles and DVD players. Cable length
Post-WIMP The reason WIMP interfaces have become so prevalent since their conception at Xerox PARC is that they are very good at abstracting work-spaces, documents, and their actions. Their analogous paradigm to documents as paper sheets or folders makes WIMP interfaces easy to introduce to other users. Furthermore their basic representations as rectangular regions on a 2D flat screen make them a good fit for system programmers, thus favouring the abundance of commercial widget toolkits in this style. However WIMP interfaces are not optimal for working with complex tasks such as computer-aided design, working on large amounts of data simultaneously, or interactive games. WIMPs are usually pixel-hungry, so given limited screen real estate they can distract attention from the task at hand. Thus, custom interfaces can better encapsulate workspaces, actions, and objects for specific complex tasks. Examples See also References
DisplayPort DisplayPort is a digital display interface developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, though it can also be used to carry audio, USB, and other forms of data. The VESA specification is royalty-free. The first version, 1.0, was approved by VESA on May 3, 2006. Version 1.1a was approved on April 2, 2007 followed by the current standard 1.2 on December 22, 2009. Overview DisplayPort is the first display interface to rely on packetized data transmission, a form of digital communication found in other technologies like Ethernet, USB, and PCI Express. The DisplayPort signal is not compatible with DVI or HDMI. The DisplayPort connector can have 1, 2, or 4 differential data pairs (lanes) in a Main Link, each with a raw bit rate of 1.62, 2.7, or 5.4 Gbit/s per lane with self-clock running at 162, 270, or 540 MHz. Versions 1.0 to 1.1 1.2
Internet protocol suite The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it was originally also known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. The TCP/IP model and related protocol models are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). History Early research Diagram of the first internetworked connection Specification Adoption Key architectural principles Abstraction layers Link layer
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4, which still carries the vast majority of Internet traffic as of 2013. As of February 2014[update], the percentage of users reaching Google services over IPv6 surpassed 3% for the first time. Every device on the Internet is assigned an IP address for identification and location definition. IPv6 addresses are represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons, for example 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334, but methods of abbreviation of this full notation exist. Technical overview Decomposition of the IPv6 address representation into its binary form
WebSocket WebSocket is a protocol providing full-duplex communications channels over a single TCP connection. The WebSocket protocol was standardized by the IETF as RFC 6455 in 2011, and the WebSocket API in Web IDL is being standardized by the W3C. Technical overview Browser implementation WebSocket protocol handshake To establish a WebSocket connection, the client sends a WebSocket handshake request, for which the server returns a WebSocket handshake response, as shown in the following example::section 1.2 Client request: GET /chat HTTP/1.1 Host: server.example.com Upgrade: websocket Connection: Upgrade Sec-WebSocket-Key: x3JJHMbDL1EzLkh9GBhXDw== Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: chat, superchat Sec-WebSocket-Version: 13 Origin: Server response: HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols Upgrade: websocket Connection: Upgrade Sec-WebSocket-Accept: HSmrc0sMlYUkAGmm5OPpG2HaGWk= Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: chat Note that each line ends with an EOL (end of line) sequence, \r\n.
ICMPv6 Several extensions have been published, defining new ICMPv6 message types as well as new options for existing ICMPv6 message types. Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a node discovery protocol in IPv6 which replaces and enhances functions of ARP. Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol (SEND) is an extension of NDP with extra security. Multicast Router Discovery (MRD) allows discovery of multicast routers. Technical details ICMPv6 messages may be classified into two categories: error messages and information messages. Packet format The ICMPv6 packet consists of a header and the protocol payload. Types of ICMPv6 messages Note that the table above is not comprehensive. Operation Message checksum ICMPv6 provides a minimal level of message integrity verification by the inclusion of a 16-bit checksum in its header. Message processing When an ICMPv6 node receives a packet, it must undertake actions that depend on the type of message. References
Digital Living Network Alliance The Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) is a nonprofit collaborative trade organization established by Sony in June 2003, that is responsible for defining interoperability guidelines to enable sharing of digital media between multimedia devices. These guidelines are built upon existing public standards, but the guidelines themselves are private (available for a fee). These guidelines specify a set of restricted ways of using the standards to achieve interoperability and include almost no free audio formats and only the most common (free or otherwise) video formats, meaning that DLNA servers generally have to support transcoding in order to produce a useful service. DLNA uses Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) for media management, discovery and control. UPnP defines the type of device that DLNA supports ("server", "renderer", "controller") and the mechanisms for accessing media over a network. History Specification Home Network Devices Member companies