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Companion planting Companion planting of carrots and onions. Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is the planting of different crops in proximity for pest control, pollination, providing habitat for beneficial creatures, maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase crop productivity.[1] Companion planting is a form of polyculture. Companion planting is used by farmers and gardeners in both industrialized and developing countries for many reasons. Many of the modern principles of companion planting were present many centuries ago in cottage gardens in England and home gardens in Asia, and thousands of years ago in Mesoamerica. Companion planting
Intercropping Intercropping When crops are carefully selected, other agronomic benefits are also achieved. Lodging-prone plants, those that are prone to tip over in wind or heavy rain, may be given structural support by their companion crop.[3] Creepers can also benefit from structural support. Some plants are used to suppress weeds or provide nutrients.[4] Delicate or light sensitive plants may be given shade or protection, or otherwise wasted space can be utilized. An example is the tropical multi-tier system where coconut occupies the upper tier, banana the middle tier, and pineapple, ginger, or leguminous fodder, medicinal or aromatic plants occupy the lowest tier. The degree of spatial and temporal overlap in the two crops can vary somewhat, but both requirements must be met for a cropping system to be an intercrop.
Sphagnum Sphagnum is a genus of approximately 120 species[1] of mosses. Sphagnum accumulations can store water, since both living and dead plants can hold large quantities of water inside their cells; plants may hold from 16-26 times as much water as their dry weight depending on the species.[2] The empty cells help retain water in drier conditions. Hence, as sphagnum moss grows, it can slowly spread into drier conditions, forming larger peatlands, both raised bogs and blanket bogs.[3] These peat accumulations then provide habitat for a wide array of peatland plants, including sedges and ericaceous shrubs, as well as orchids and carnivorous plants.[4] Sphagnum and the peat formed from it do not decay readily because of the phenolic compounds embedded in the moss's cell walls. In addition, bogs, like all wetlands, develop anaerobic soil conditions, which produces slower anaerobic decay rather than aerobic microbial action. Sphagnum
Coffee grounds for compost and fertilizer
As well as the nutritional value people have exploited the medicinal properties of the stinging nettle. Culpeper recommended the use of nettles to ’...consume the phlegmatic superfluities in the body of man, that the coldness and moisture of winter has left behind“. He also prescribed the juice of the leaves as a treatment for gangrenes and scabies. Native Americans used the fresh leaves to treat aches and pains. European herbalists used the leaves in a similar fashion to treat gout and arthritis. Medicinal uses of Nettles Medicinal uses of Nettles
David Winston David Winston RH (AHG) (born 1956) is an American herbalist and ethnobotanist. He has been in practice and teaching since 1977 and has written several books on the subject. He works in the Cherokee, Chinese and the Western eclectic herbal traditions.[1] Winston is a founding/professional member of the American Herbalists Guild, and is a founding advisory board member of United Plant Savers. He serves as visiting faculty at the Maryland University of Integrative Health (formally Tai Sophia Institute). David Winston
Botany, also called plant science(s) or plant biology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist is a scientist who specializes in this field of study. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (botane) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". A person who studies plants may be called a botanist or a plant scientist. Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae, studied by mycologists, phycologists respectively, with the study of plants and these three groups of organisms remain within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Botany Botany
The still room is a distillery room found in most great houses, castles or large establishments throughout Europe dating back at least to medieval times. Medicines were prepared, cosmetics and many home cleaning products created, and home-brewed beer or wine was often made. Herbs and flowers from the kitchen garden and surrounding countryside were preserved for flavoring food[1] and processed into what today we call essential oils, and infused or distilled, or brewed (etc.) as required to make rose water, lavender water, tinctures,[1] peppermint-based ointments, soaps, furniture polishes and a wide variety of medicines.[2] The still room was a working room: part science lab, part infirmary and part kitchen. Originally, the still room was a very important part of the household. The lady of the house was in charge of the room, and she taught her daughters and wards[3] some of the skills needed to run their own homes in order to make them more marriageable. Still room Still room
Ethnobotany Ethnobotany (from ethnology, study of culture,[1] and botany, study of plants) is the scientific study of the relationships that exist between peoples and plants. Ethnobotanists aim to document, describe and explain complex relationships between cultures and (uses of) plants, focusing primarily on how plants are used, managed and perceived across human societies. This includes use for food, clothing, currency, ritual, medicine, dye, construction, cosmetics and a lot more.[2] Richard Evans Schultes, called the "father of ethnobotany",[3] explained the discipline in this way: Ethnobotany simply means [...] investigating plants used by primitive societies in various parts of the world.[4] Intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing arrangements are important issues in ethnobotany.[5] History of ethnobotany[edit]

Ethnobotany

The Gardener's Rake » Build a simple Mini-hothouse I always start certain seeds early. It helps me to produce more plants and crops in my cooler zone 5 climate. photo credit: ricoeurian If you don’t have room for a greenhouse or just want to start a few plants you can make a mini-hothouse by using a plastic tub. The Gardener's Rake » Build a simple Mini-hothouse