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8½ Women is a 1999 comedy-drama film written and directed by Peter Greenaway , and starring John Standing , Matthew Delamere, and Vivian Wu . The international co-production ( the United Kingdom , the Netherlands , Luxembourg , and Germany ) was entered into the 1999 Cannes Film Festival . [ 2 ] [ edit ] Plot After the death of his wife ( Claire Johnston ), wealthy businessman Philip Emmenthal ( John Standing ) and his son Storey ( Matthew Delamere ) open their own private harem in their family residence in Geneva (they get the idea while watching Federico Fellini 's 8½ and after Storey is "given" a woman, Simato ( Shizuka Inoh ), to waive her pachinko debts). They sign one-year contracts with eight (and a half) women to this effect.
The demiurge is a concept from the Platonic , Neopythagorean , Middle Platonic , and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy for an artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning and maintenance of the physical universe. The term was subsequently adopted by the Gnostics . Although a fashioner, the demiurge is not necessarily thought of as being the same as the creator figure in the familiar monotheistic sense, because both the demiurge itself plus the material from which the demiurge fashions the universe are considered either uncreated and eternal, or the product of some other being, depending on the system. In Gnosticism the Demiurge, creator of the material world, was not God but the Archon. [ 1 ]
Metamagical Themas is a collection of eclectic articles written for Scientific American during the early 1980s by Douglas Hofstadter , and published together as a book in 1985 by Basic Books ( ISBN 0-465-04566-9 ). The subject matter of the articles is loosely woven about themes in philosophy , creativity , artificial intelligence , typography and fonts , and important social issues. The volume is substantial in size and contains extensive notes concerning responses to the articles and other information relevant to their content. (One of the notes—page 65—suggested memetics for the study of memes .)
The concept of superrationality (or renormalized rationality) was coined by Douglas Hofstadter , in his article series and book Metamagical Themas . [ 1 ] Superrationality represents an alternative type of rational decision making different from the widely-accepted game-theoretic one, since a superrational player playing against a superrational opponent in a prisoner's dilemma will cooperate while a game-theoretically rational player will defect. Superrationality is not a mainstream model within game theory . [ edit ] Prisoner's dilemma The idea of superrationality is that two logical thinkers analyzing the same problem will think of the same correct answer. For example, if two persons are both good at arithmetic, and both have been given the same complicated sum to do, it can be predicted that both will get the same answer before the sum is known.
Diagram showing reciprocal altruism In evolutionary biology , reciprocal altruism is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time. The concept was initially developed by Robert Trivers to explain the evolution of cooperation as instances of mutually altruistic acts. The concept is close to the strategy of " tit for tat " used in game theory . [ edit ] Theory
The prisoner's dilemma is a canonical example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so. It was originally framed by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher working at RAND in 1950. Albert W. Tucker formalized the game with prison sentence rewards and gave it the name "prisoner's dilemma" (Poundstone, 1992), presenting it as follows:
Game theory is a study of strategic decision making . More formally, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers." [ 1 ] An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory . [ 2 ] Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games , such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant(s). Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of class relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of science, to include both human and non-humans, like computers.
In Western business cultures, a handshake when meeting someone is an example of initial cooperation. Tit for tat is an English saying meaning "equivalent retaliation ". It is also a highly effective strategy in game theory for the iterated prisoner's dilemma .
The Pillow Book is a 1996 film by British director Peter Greenaway , which stars Vivian Wu as Nagiko, a Japanese model in search of pleasure and new cultural experience from various lovers. The film is a rich and artistic melding of dark modern drama with idealized Chinese and Japanese cultural themes and settings, and centers around body painting . It co-stars Ewan McGregor as Jerome, an English translator who becomes Nagiko's favourite lover. Greenaway also wrote the screenplay, in addition to directing. The film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival . [ 1 ] Andrew Johnston (critic) stated: "Most of Greenaway's signature visual devices (elaborate title cards, superimposed images) are employed here; but accompanied by U2 songs and traditional Asian music, instead of a Michael Nyman score, they seem fresher and more dynamic than before.
World Peace Update We're not quite there yet, folks. The Cute Show Capybara Bathhouse! We met a herd of capybara who love to take dips in the park's hot springs.
Big Black was an American punk rock band from Evanston, Illinois , active from 1981 to 1987. Founded by singer and guitarist Steve Albini , the band's initial lineup also included guitarist Santiago Durango and bassist Jeff Pezzati , both of Naked Raygun . In 1985 Pezzati was replaced by Dave Riley , who played on Big Black's two full-length studio albums , Atomizer (1986) and Songs About Fucking (1987). Big Black's aggressive and abrasive music was characterized by distinctively clanky guitars and the use of a drum machine rather than a drum kit , elements which precursored industrial rock . The band acknowledged no taboos , and Albini's lyrics openly dealt with loaded topics including murder , rape , child sexual abuse , arson , racism , and misogyny . They also held staunch principles, shunning the mainstream music industry and insisting on complete control over all aspects of their career.
Shellac (sometimes referred to as Shellac of North America ) is an American group composed of Steve Albini (guitar and vocals), Bob Weston (bass guitar and vocals) and Todd Trainer (drums and vocals). Although they have been classified as post-hardcore [ 1 ] [ 2 ] they describe themselves as a "minimalist rock trio." [ edit ] Biography Shellac formed in Chicago , Illinois , in 1992 as an informal collaboration between guitarist Steve Albini and drummer Todd Trainer. Former Naked Raygun bassist Camilo Gonzalez sat in on early rehearsals and played on one song on Shellac's first single before permanent bassist Bob Weston, formerly of Boston 's Volcano Suns , joined. Shellac has a distinctive, minimalist sound based on unusual and urgent time signatures , repetitive heavy rhythms, an angular guitar sound, and both Albini's and Weston's surreal, bitingly sarcastic lyrics .
Steven Frank "Steve" Albini (pronounced / æ l ˈ b iː n i / ; born July 22, 1962) is an American singer, songwriter, guitarist, audio engineer , and music journalist . He was a member of Big Black , Rapeman , and Flour , and is currently a member of Shellac . He is the founder, owner, and engineer of Electrical Audio , a recording studio complex located in Chicago , and has worked with musical acts such as Sparklehorse , Nirvana , The Stooges , Slint , Pixies , Jawbreaker , Manic Street Preachers , Cheap Trick , Neurosis , PJ Harvey , The Jesus Lizard , Om , Whitehouse , Bush , mclusky , Electrelane , Thom Bowden and Scrawl , among others. [ edit ] Early life Albini was born in Pasadena, California, the son of Gina (Martinelli) and Frank Addison Albini, a wildlife researcher. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] In his youth, Albini's family moved often, before settling in Missoula, Montana in 1974.
Sylvia Massy is an entrepreneur , record producer , and studio engineer in the United States . Massy is perhaps best recognized for her work on 1993's Undertow , the full-length double platinum-selling debut for Los Angeles rock band Tool and her works on System of a Down 's first debut album. [ edit ] History Massy started out in San Francisco circa 1985 as producer, engineer, and mixer for Rat Music for Rat People, Vol. 3 , a compilation album released on the CD Presents label. It featured several notable acts, including Adolescents , Raw Power , and Mojo Nixon , among several others.