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Logic and Rhetoric

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Compress to impress. Cookies are Not Accepted - New York Times. The data suggests that young women use the phrase slightly more often than men, but in my own classes, male students begin almost every statement with “I feel like.”

Cookies are Not Accepted - New York Times

The gender gap is vanishing because the cultural roots of this linguistic shift were never primarily a consequence of gender. Today’s college students have come of age in a time of growing diversity and political polarization. Mental Models and Reasoning Lab. Mental models Mental models are psychological representations of real, hypothetical, or imaginary situations.

Mental Models and Reasoning Lab

They were first postulated by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, who postulated (1896) that reasoning is a process by which a human “examines the state of things asserted in the premisses, forms a diagram of that state of things, perceives in the parts of the diagram relations not explicitly mentioned in the premisses, satisfies itself by mental experiments upon the diagram that these relations would always subsist, or at least would do so in a certain proportion of cases, and concludes their necessary, or probable, truth.”

The Scottish psychologist Kenneth Craik (1943) proposed a similar idea; he believed that the mind constructs “small-scale models” of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason, and to underlie explanation. The rise and fall and rise of logic. The history of logic should be of interest to anyone with aspirations to thinking that is correct, or at least reasonable.

The rise and fall and rise of logic

Theconversation. Part of what I do as an archaeologist is judge between competing claims to truth.

theconversation

Indeed, you could say this is the entire purpose of science. Before we make a judgment about what is true, there are facts that have to be examined and weighed against one another. When Trump’s senior advisor Kellyanne Conway made her now infamous reference to “alternative facts,” many viewers were stunned. But I am a scientist. Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds. In 1975, researchers at Stanford invited a group of undergraduates to take part in a study about suicide.

Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds

They were presented with pairs of suicide notes. In each pair, one note had been composed by a random individual, the other by a person who had subsequently taken his own life. The students were then asked to distinguish between the genuine notes and the fake ones. Some students discovered that they had a genius for the task. Out of twenty-five pairs of notes, they correctly identified the real one twenty-four times. As is often the case with psychological studies, the whole setup was a put-on. In the second phase of the study, the deception was revealed. The Map is Not the Territory. “(History) offers a ridiculous spectacle of a fragment expounding the whole.” — Will Durant in Our Oriental Heritage “That’s another thing we’ve learned from your Nation,” said Mein Herr, “map-making.

The Map is Not the Territory

But we’ve carried it much further than you. What do you consider the largest map that would be really useful?” “About six inches to the mile.” “Only six inches!” In 1931, in New Orleans, Louisiana, mathematician Alfred Korzybski presented a paper on mathematical semantics. However, in his string of arguments on the structure of language, Korzybski introduced and popularized the idea that the map is not the territory. How to Think Like Shakespeare - The Chronicle of Higher Education. Class of 2020, welcome to college.

How to Think Like Shakespeare - The Chronicle of Higher Education

Right about now, your future professors are probably sitting in a faculty meeting, rolling their eyes at their dean’s recitation of the annual Beloit College Mindset List, which catalogs the cultural touchstones of your lives. But to me, the most momentous event in your intellectual formation was the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, which ushered in our disastrous fixation on testing. To tell someone they're wrong, first tell them how they're right — Quartz. For a firm that makes most of its money selling software and cloud services, Microsoft sure wants to look like a hardware company.

To tell someone they're wrong, first tell them how they're right — Quartz

Alongside new features for Windows 10, Microsoft execs spent more than an hour of the company’s event on Oct. 26 pitching new computers, VR headsets, and accessories focused on artists and designers. When it comes to Microsoft’s bottom line, hardware sales are just a drop in the bucket. And while niche-targeted products like creative-friendly desktops are unlikely to change that, new hardware puts the company right next to Apple in the headlines. They also paint a clear picture of the message Microsoft wants investors and consumers to hear: Macs are over, and PCs are once again for creative types.

The Questions That Matter. The Questions That Matter And the questions that don’t.

The Questions That Matter

Basic questions are good questions. They matter. We learn from them. Yet people often apologize for — or don’t bother — asking them. But there are stupid questions, or at least questions that don’t matter. I asked those questions Back when I was a junior equity analyst, I asked more than my fair share of questions that didn’t matter. That looks and sounds like an intelligent question. Instead, I asked it to justify my presence on the call. The Tyranny of Facts: Being “Right” is Not Enough. The Tyranny of Facts: Being “Right” is Not Enough Most philosophical and political disagreements don’t take place in courtrooms, they take place using a series of text boxes levied against an often-anonymous opponent.

The Tyranny of Facts: Being “Right” is Not Enough

Or, if in person, in a setting where you don’t exactly have a notebook full of facts you’ve vetted and researched for your conversation with your college roommate about the flat tax . Yet, too often in our political discourse we act as if we are one hand-picked fact from totally convincing the Other Side. Your political opposites should be convinced when they hear a study or poll or story.

Yet, when is the last time someone cited a fact that stopped you in your tracks and made you immediately and unceremoniously change your mind? Uk.businessinsider. AMC via Netflix If you want to convince someone that your explanation for something is the best way to explain it, you might want to tack on some useless (though accurate) information from a tangentially related scientific field.

It turns out that when you tack on additional information from a respected field of study, people think that makes an explanation more credible. That strategy can be devised from the findings of a recent study conducted by University of Pennsylvania researchers that was published in the journal Cognition. Brian Christian: Algorithms to Live By. It is possible to be extremely astute about how we manage difficult decisions.

With just a few mental tools we get the benefit of better outcomes along with release from agonizing about the process of deciding. Many mental tools—algorithms—developed with obligatory clarity for computers turn out to have ready application for humans facing such problems as: when to stop hunting for an apartment (or lover); how much novelty to seek; how to get rid of the right stuff; how to allot scarce time; how to consider the future; when to relax constraints; how to give chance a chance; how to recognize when you’re playing the wrong game; and how to make decisions easier for others (“computational kindness”). Brian Christian, the co-author of Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions, lives in San Francisco, deploying his degrees in philosophy, computer science, and poetry.

Solving hard decisions Christian went into detail on the Explore/Exploit problem. Why You Can't Change People's Minds With Facts. The UK’s recent referendum on European Union membership seems to have exposed deep fault lines in British society, if the strength of feeling shown in arguments on social media is anything to go by. I’ve certainly seen the normal rules of civilised conversation set aside, people on either side calling each other terrible things, and huge amounts of anger and discourtesy. What I haven’t seen is anyone saying “Yes, I appreciate your argument even though I previously disagreed with it – I will re-examine my opinion.” This tends to baffle ‘Remain’ voters who can’t understand why the ‘Leave’ partisans aren’t changing their minds, even though the claims made by the ‘Leave’ campaign about immigration and finances (on which presumably they based their decision) are rapidly being rowed back from or disavowed by the same politicians who were trumpeting them before the campaign.

Why aren’t the ‘Leave’ enthusiasts changing their minds in the light of the new information that’s coming in daily? 1. The Value of Grey Thinking. One of the most common questions we receive, unsurprisingly, is along the lines of What one piece of advice would you recommend to become a better thinker? The question is kind of cheating. There is, of course, no one thing, and if Farnam Street is a testament to any idea, it’s that you must pull from many disciplines to achieve overall wisdom. No truly great thinker is siloed in a small territory. But a common experience tends to occur as you rid yourself of ideology and narrowness, as you venture deeper and deeper into unfamiliar territory; and it’s worth thinking about it ahead of time. It goes by many names, but a fair one might be Grey Thinking. The Black-and-White Swan. Mastering the Art of Communication: What Big Data Can Tell Us. There’s plenty of anecdotal evidence about what makes a good communicator, but Noah Zandan is more interested in the science behind it.

That’s why he co-founded Quantified Communications, a firm that helps business leaders remake and refine their messages. Zandan spoke recently to Cade Massey, Wharton practice professor of operations, information and decisions and co-director of the Wharton People Analytics Initiative, about how he applies research to the art of communication. Massey is co-host of the Wharton Moneyball show on Wharton Business Radio on SiriusXM channel 111, and this interview was part of a special broadcast on SiriusXM for the Wharton People Analytics Conference. An edited transcript of the conversation appears below.

Why "scout mindset" is crucial to good judgment. How to win a Facebook argument, according to science. (Rachel Orr/ The Washington Post; iStock) Want to Be Extraordinarily Persuasive? Start by Banning These 3 Weak Words. Don’t Get "Should" Mixed Up with "Is" A Cambridge professor on how to stop being so easily manipulated by misleading statistics. How To Have An Opinion Worth Hearing. Illusory Correlation: How to Spot This Common Mental Error. Human beings have been blaming strange behavior on the full moon for centuries. 3 Types of Questions Smart People Never Ask (and 5 They Do) Keep losing arguments? A psychologist explains why emotions are more persuasive than logic.

Summer is always important for the movie business, and this past one was the second-biggest ever for ticket sales. Studios succeeded by doing what they do best: recombinant franchise films featuring superheroes and beasts. Jurassic World helped Universal dominate box office totals, gobbling up US$1.65 billion worldwide. Meanwhile, the latest Marvel installments, Avengers and Ant Man, together reaped around $2 billion. How to Think Strategically. Are great strategic thinkers born or made? Rationality. How to Solve Google’s Crazy Open-Ended Interview Questions. Adding Tools to Your Mental Toolbox. In The Art of War Sun Tzu said “The general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought.” How to Think. In Praise of Slowness: Challenging the Cult of Speed.

Mental Models. Rethink Your Thoughts about Thinking. Changing How We Think. Ideology is the Problem. How Bayes’ Rule Can Make You A Better Thinker. Simple Rules: How to Thrive in a Complex World. Daniel Kahneman Explains The Machinery of Thought. Daniel Dennett on Tools To Transform Our Thinking. The Baloney Detection Kit: Carl Sagan’s Rules for Bullshit-Busting and Critical Thinking.

Maybe Logic. John Searle on Ludwig Wittgenstein: Section 1. Why Study Logic? Center for Applied Rationality. Socratic Method Research Portal. Training - Encouraging Critical Thinking Online. Where Knowledge, Understanding and Wisdom Begin. Intellectually honest and intellectually dishonest debate tactics. Thou shalt not commit logical fallacies. An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments. Logical Fallacies. Taxonomy of the Logical Fallacies. Rhetological Fallacies. The Logical Fallacies: Logical Fallacies.

Classical Rhetoric: An Introduction. The Periodic Table of the Figures of Speech: 40 Ways to Improve Your Writing. Avoid Mistakes - Figures of Speech. Silva Rhetoricae: The Forest of Rhetoric. A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices. Metaphor Examples - Example of Metaphor. How To Win Every Argument. How To Win An Argument. A practical guide to countering science denial.

The Ten Golden Rules of Argument. How to Criticize with Kindness: Philosopher Daniel Dennett on the Four Steps to Arguing Intelligently. Why Harvard Destroyed Rhetoric - Figures of Speech. How to Train Your Mind to Think Critically and Form Your Own Opinions. Debating with Knives. What Is Unhealthy Skepticism? - The Epoch Times. The Six Filters for Truth. Julian Treasure: How to speak so that people want to listen. Nancy Duarte: The secret structure of great talks. ``How To Speak and Write Postmodern''