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Baruch Spinoza (24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677) — later Benedict de Spinoza — was a Jewish - Dutch philosopher. [ 1 ] Demonstrating considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death.
Christiaan Huygens , FRS ( / ˈ h aɪ ɡ ən z / or / ˈ h ɔɪ ɡ ən z / ; [ˈɦœy̆ɣə(n)s] ( listen ) ; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a prominent Dutch mathematician , astronomer , physicist and horologist . His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan , the invention of the pendulum clock and other investigations in timekeeping, and studies of both optics and the centrifugal force . Huygens achieved note for his argument that light consists of waves , [ 1 ] now known as the Huygens–Fresnel principle , which two centuries later became instrumental in the understanding of wave-particle duality . He generally receives credit for his discovery of the centrifugal force, the laws for collision of bodies, for his role in the development of modern calculus and his original observations on sound perception (see repetition pitch ). [ edit ] Life
Robert Hooke FRS (28 July [ O.S. 18 July] 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher , architect and polymath . His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666 , but eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes. These issues may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity. He was at one time simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society and a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry and a Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London, in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire.
Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution . His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics . Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus . Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Evangelista Torricelli ( Italian: [evandʒeˈlista torriˈtʃɛlli] pronunciation ) was an Italian physicist and mathematician , best known for his invention of the barometer . [ edit ] Biography [ edit ] Early life Torricelli was born on 15 October in 1608 in Faenza in the Province of Ravenna , then part of the Papal States , the firstborn child of Gaspare Torricelli and Caterina Angetti. His father was a textile worker and the family was very poor.
Robert Boyle , FRS , (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was a 17th-century natural philosopher , chemist , physicist , and inventor, also noted for his writings in theology .