Natural History

Facebook Twitter

George Edwards (naturalist) George Edwards George Edwards (3 April 1694 – 23 July 1773) was an English naturalist and ornithologist, known as the "father of British ornithology".

George Edwards (naturalist)

Edwards was born at Stratford, Essex. In his early years he travelled extensively through mainland Europe, studying natural history, and gained some reputation for his coloured drawings of animals, especially birds. In 1733, on the recommendation of Sir Hans Sloane, he was appointed librarian to the Royal College of Physicians in London. Etching from Gleanings, vol. In 1743 he published the first volume of his A Natural History of Uncommon Birds, the fourth volume of which appeared in 1751, and three supplementary volumes, under the title Gleanings of Natural History, were issued in 1758, 1760 and 1764. About 1764 he retired to Plaistow, Essex, where he later died. The Cock Sparrow, undated, by George Edwards. He also wrote Essays of Natural History (1770) , Elements of Fossilogy (1776) Pierre Louis Maupertuis.

Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (French: [mopɛʁtɥi]; 1698 – 27 July 1759)[1] was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters.

Pierre Louis Maupertuis

He became the Director of the Académie des Sciences, and the first President of the Prussian Academy of Science, at the invitation of Frederick the Great. Biography[edit] Maupertuis was born at Saint-Malo, France, to a moderately wealthy family of merchant-corsairs[citation needed]. He was educated in mathematics by a private tutor, and upon completing his formal education his father secured him a largely honorific cavalry commission. After three years in the cavalry, during which time he became acquainted with fashionable social and mathematical circles, he moved to Paris and began building his reputation as a mathematician and literary wit. After the Lapland expedition, Maupertuis set about generalizing his earlier mathematical work, proposing the principle of least action as a metaphysical principle that underlies all the laws of mechanics.

John Bartram. John Bartram (March 23, 1699 – September 22, 1777) was an early American botanist, horticulturist and explorer.

John Bartram

Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world. "[2] Early life[edit] Bartram was born into a Quaker farm family in colonial Pennsylvania. Plant collecting activities[edit] He came to travel extensively in the eastern American colonies collecting plants. Bartram, sometimes called the "father of American Botany",[4] was one of the first practicing Linnaean botanists in North America. Bartram was aided in his collecting efforts by colonists. His 8-acre (32,000 m2) botanic garden, Bartram's Garden in Kingsessing on the west bank of the Schuylkill, about 3 miles (5 km) from the center of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is frequently cited as the first true botanic collection in North America. Contact with other botanists[edit] House of John Bartram located in Philadelphia, PA, circa 1919 Family[edit] John Bartram High School in Philadelphia is named after him.

Nicholas Culpeper. Nicholas Culpeper (18 October 1616 – 10 January 1654) was an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer.

Nicholas Culpeper

His published books include The English Physician (1652) and the Complete Herbal (1653), which contain a rich store of pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge, and Astrological Judgement of Diseases from the Decumbiture of the Sick (1655), which is one of the most detailed documents we have on the practice of medical astrology in Early Modern Europe. Culpeper spent the greater part of his life in the English outdoors cataloging hundreds of medicinal herbs. He criticized what he considered the unnatural methods of his contemporaries, writing: "This not being pleasing, and less profitable to me, I consulted with my two brothers, DR.

REASON and DR. EXPERIENCE, and took a voyage to visit my mother NATURE, by whose advice, together with the help of Dr. Biography[edit] Culpeper was the son of Nicholas Culpeper (Senior), a clergyman. Political beliefs[edit] Legacy[edit] See also[edit] Francesco Redi. Francesco Redi (February 19, 1626 – March 1, 1697)[1] was an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet.

Francesco Redi

He was the first scientist to challenge the theories of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies.[2] He was also the first to recognize and correctly describe details of many important parasites, and for this reason, as many historians and scientists claim, he may rightly be called the father of modern parasitology,[3][4] and also regarded as the founder of experimental biology.[5][6] Biography[edit] The son of Gregorio Redi and Cecilia de Ghinci was born in Arezzo on February 18, 1626. His father was a renowned physician at Florence. After schooling with the Jesuits, he attended the University of Pisa from where he obtained his doctoral degrees in medical and philosophy in 1647, at the age of 21.[3] He constantly moved to Rome, Naples, Bologna, Padua, and Venice, and finally settled in Florence in 1648.

Scientific career[edit] Parasitology[edit] John Ray. John Ray (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist, widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists, and the man with whom "the adventure of modern science begins".[1] Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray.

John Ray

From then on, he used 'Ray', after "having ascertained that such had been the practice of his family before him".[2] Early life[edit] John Ray was born in the village of Black Notley. He is said to have been born in the smithy, his father having been the village blacksmith. He was sent at the age of sixteen to Cambridge University: studying at Trinity College and Catharine Hall.[4] His tutor at Trinity was James Duport, and his intimate friend and fellow-pupil the celebrated Isaac Barrow. Career[edit] Woodcut (1693) His religious views were generally in accord with those imposed under the restoration of Charles II of England, and (though technically a nonconformist) he continued as a layman in the Established Church of England.[6]

Marcello Malpighi. Marcello Malpighi.

Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 – November 29, 1694) was an Italian physician and biologist regarded as the father of microscopical anatomy and histology. Malpighi gave his name to several physiological features related to the biological excretory system, such as the Malpighian corpuscles and Malpighian pyramids of the kidneys and the Malpighian tubule system of insects. The splenic lymphoid nodules are often called the "Malpighian bodies of the spleen" or Malpighian corpuscles. Early years[edit] Malpighi was born on March 10, 1628 at Crevalcore near Bologna, Italy. Career[edit] In 1653, his father, mother, and grandmother being dead, Malpighi left his family villa and returned to the University of Bologna to study Anatomy.

Retiring from university life to his villa in the country near Bologna in 1663, he worked as a physician while continuing to conduct experiments on the plants and insects he found on his estate. In 1668, Malpighi received a letter from Mr. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek[note 1] (/ˈleɪvənhʊk/, Dutch: [ɑnˈtoːni vɑn ˈleːuə(n)ˌɦuk] ( ); October 24, 1632 – August 26, 1723) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology. Raised in Delft, Netherlands, Leeuwenhoek worked as a draper in his youth, and founded his own shop in 1654. He made a name for himself in municipal politics, and eventually developed an interest in lensmaking. Early life and career[edit] Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft, Holland, on October 24, 1632. Microscopic study[edit] While running his draper's shop, Leeuwenhoek began to develop an interest in lensmaking, although few records exist of his early activity. Microscopic section through one-year-old ash tree (Fraxinus) wood, drawing made by Leeuwenhoek.

Scientific fame[edit] Jan Swammerdam. Biography[edit] Once he left university, he spent much of his time pursuing his interest in insects.

Jan Swammerdam

This choice caused a rift between Swammerdam and his father, who thought his son should practice medicine. The relationship between the two deteriorated; Swammerdam's father cut off his financial support for Swammerdam's entomological studies. As a result, Swammerdam was forced, at least occasionally, to practice medicine in order to finance his own research. He obtained leave at Amsterdam to dissect the bodies of those who died in the hospital.[1] From 1667 through 1674, Swammerdam continued his research and published three books. There is evidence, however, that Swammerdam did not completely give up his scientific studies. Swammerdam died at age 43 of malaria and was buried in the Église Wallonne.

Research on insects[edit] Illustration of a Mosquito from Historia Knowledge of insects in the 17th century was to a great extent inherited from Aristotle. Research on anatomy[edit] Notes[edit] Nicolas Steno. Nicolas Steno (1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686[7][8] [NS: 11 January 1638 – 5 December 1686][7]) was a Danish Catholic bishop and scientist and a pioneer in both anatomy and geology.

Nicolas Steno

Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world.[9] Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology.[10][11] Early life and career[edit] At the urging of Thomas Bartholin, Steno first travelled to Rostock, then to Amsterdam, where he studied anatomy under and lodged at Gerard Blasius, focusing on the Lymphatic system. Scientific contributions[edit] Illustration from Steno's 1667 paper comparing the teeth of a shark head with a fossil tooth Anatomy[edit] Herman Boerhaave. Herman Boerhaave (Dutch: [ˈɦɛrmɑn ˈbuːrˌɦaːvə], 31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738) was a Dutch botanist, humanist and physician of European fame.

He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital. His main achievement was to demonstrate the relation of symptoms to lesions. In addition, he was the first to isolate the chemical urea from urine.[1] His motto was Simplex sigillum veri; Simplicity is the sign of truth. From 1950 to 1970, Boerhaave's image was printed on Dutch 20-guilder banknotes. The Leiden University Medical Centre organises medical trainings called Boerhaave-courses. Biography[edit] Oud Poelgeest Castle, Herman Boerhaave's home in Oegstgeest, near Leiden. Boerhaave was born at Voorhout near Leiden. In 1701 he was appointed lecturer on the institutes of medicine at Leiden; in his inaugural discourse, De commendando Hippocratis studio, he recommended to his pupils that great physician as their model.

Legacy[edit] Publications[edit] William Borlase. William Borlase (2 February 1695 – 31 August 1772), Cornish antiquary, geologist and naturalist. From 1722 he was Rector of Ludgvan, Cornwall, where he died in 1772. Life and works[edit] New Grimsby harbour, from Observations on the Ancient and Present State of the Islands of Scilly, and their Importance to the Trade of Great Britain Borlase was born in 1695 at Pendeen, of an ancient family originating at St Wenn. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford from 1713, and in 1719 he was ordained. Between 1744 and 1746, Borlase was active against the Methodist preachers in his capacity of magistrate. In 1750, he was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society; and, in 1754, he published, at Oxford, his Antiquities of Cornwall (2nd ed., London, 1769). He presented to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, a variety of fossils and antiquities, which he had described in his works, and received the thanks of the university and the degree of Doctor of Civil Law.

Family and character[edit] Publications[edit]