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Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis ( French: [mopɛʁtɥi] ; 17 July 1698 – 27 July 1759) [ 1 ] was a French mathematician , philosopher and man of letters . He became the Director of the Académie des Sciences , and the first President of the Prussian Academy of Science , at the invitation of Frederick the Great .
John Bartram ((23 March [ O.S. ] 1699, Darby, Pennsylvania - September 22, 1777, Philadelphia ) was an early American botanist , horticulturist and explorer . Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world." [ 2 ] [ edit ] Early life
Nicholas Culpeper (18 October 1616 – 10 January 1654) was an English botanist , herbalist , physician , and astrologer .
Francesco Redi (February 18, 1626 – March 1, 1697) was an Italian physician , naturalist , and poet . [ edit ] Biography The son of Gregorio Redi and Cecilia de Ghinci was born in Arezzo on February 18, 1626.
John Ray (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist , sometimes referred to as the father of English natural history. Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray. From then on, he used 'Ray', after "having ascertained that such had been the practice of his family before him". [ 1 ]
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek (in Dutch also Anthonie, Antoni, or Theunis, in English , Antony or Anton; [ 1 ] / ˈ l eɪ v ən h ʊ k / , Dutch: [ɑnˈtoːni vɑn ˈleːuə(n)ˌɦuk] (
Jan Swammerdam (February 12, 1637, Amsterdam – February 17, 1680) was a Dutch biologist and microscopist. His work on insects demonstrated that the various phases during the life of an insect— egg , larva , pupa , and adult—are different forms of the same animal. As part of his anatomical research, he carried out experiments on muscle contraction .
Nicolas Steno (1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ NS : 11 January 1638 – 5 December 1686] [ 7 ] ) was a Danish Catholic bishop and scientist and a pioneer in both anatomy and geology. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world. [ 9 ] Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation.
Herman Boerhaave ( Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦɛrmɑn ˈbuːrˌɦaːvə] , 31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738) was a Dutch botanist, humanist and physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital .
William Borlase (2 February 1695 – 31 August 1772), Cornish antiquary , geologist and naturalist . From 1722 he was Rector of Ludgvan , Cornwall, where he died in 1772.