Saint Anselm of Canterbury ( c. 1033 – 21 April 1109), also called of Aosta for his birthplace, and of Bec for his home monastery, was a Benedictine monk, a philosopher , and a prelate of the Church who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.
Peter Abelard ( / ˈ æ b . ə . l ɑː r d / ; Latin : Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus ; French : Pierre Abélard , pronounced: [a.beˈlaːʁ] ; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher , theologian and preeminent logician . [ 1 ] He also was a music composer. The story of his affair with and love for Heloise has become legendary. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as "the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century". [ 2 ]
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius , [ 1 ] [ 2 ] commonly called Boethius [ 3 ] (c. 480–524 or 525 AD), was a philosopher of the early 6th century.
Saint Bonaventure, O.F.M. , ( Italian : San Bonaventura ; 1221 – 15 July 1274), [ 1 ] born Giovanni di Fidanza , was an Italian medieval scholastic theologian and philosopher . The seventh Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor , he was also a Cardinal Bishop of Albano .
Blessed John (Johannes, Ioannes) Duns Scotus , O.F.M. (c. 1266 – 8 November 1308) is generally reckoned to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages . [ 1 ] Scotus has had considerable influence on both Catholic and secular thought. The doctrines for which he is best known are the " univocity of being," that existence is the most abstract concept we have, applicable to everything that exists; the formal distinction , a way of distinguishing between different aspects of the same thing; and the idea of haecceity , the property supposed to be in each individual thing that makes it an individual.
Augustine of Hippo ( pron.: / ɔː ˈ ɡ ʌ s t ɨ n / [ 1 ] [ 2 ] or / ˈ ɔː ɡ ə s t ɪ n / ; [ 2 ] Latin : Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis ; [ 3 ] 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as St Augustine , St Austin , [ 4 ] or St Augoustinos , was a Father of the Church whose writings are considered very influential in the development of Western Christianity and philosophy .
Confessions ( Latin : Confessiones ) is the name of an autobiographical work, consisting of 13 books, by St. Augustine of Hippo , written between AD 397 and AD 398.
Thomas Aquinas , O.P. ( pron.: / ə ˈ k w aɪ n ə s / ə- KWY -nəs ; 1225 – 7 March 1274), also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino , was an Italian Dominican priest , and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism , within which he is also known as the "Dumb Ox", "Angelic Doctor", " Doctor Communis ", and " Doctor Universalis ". [ 1 ] "Aquinas" is the demonym of Aquino : Thomas came from one of the noblest families of the Kingdom of Naples; his parents held the titles "Count of Aquino" and "Countess of Teano." [ 2 ] He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology , and the father of Thomism .
John Calvin ( French : Jean Calvin , born Jehan Cauvin : 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation . He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism . Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.
Martin Luther ( German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] ( listen ) ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German monk , former Catholic priest , professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in sixteenth century Christianity , subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation . [ 1 ] He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517.