Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerreto , [ 1 ] Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 1776, Turin , Piedmont – 9 July 1856) was an Italian savant .
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS MRIA FGS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was an English chemist and inventor. [ 1 ] He is probably best remembered today for his discoveries of several alkali and alkaline earth metals , as well as contributions to the discoveries of the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine . Berzelius called Davy's 1806 Bakerian Lecture On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity [ 2 ] "one of the best memoirs which has ever enriched the theory of chemistry." [ 3 ] This paper was central to any chemical affinity theory in the first half of the nineteenth century. [ 4 ] In 1815 he invented the Davy lamp , which allowed miners to work safely in the presence of flammable gases. [ edit ] Biography
Jöns Jacob Berzelius ( Swedish: [jœns ˌjɑːkɔb bæɹˈseːliɵs] ; 20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848) was a Swedish chemist.
Pierre Jean Robiquet (January 13, 1780 – April 1840) was a French chemist , who laid founding work in identifying amino acids , the fundamental bricks of proteins , through recognizing the first of them, asparagin , in 1806, in the take up of the industry of industrial dyes, with the identification of alizarin in 1826, and in the emergence of modern medications, through the identification of codeine in 1832, a powerful molecule today of widespread use with analgesic and antidiarrheal properties. Robiquet was born in Rennes . He was at first a pharmacist in the French armies during the French Revolution years and became a professor at the École de pharmacie in Paris , where he died.
Michael Faraday , FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry .
Johan August Arfwedson (12 January 1792 – 28 October 1841) was a Swedish chemist who discovered the chemical element lithium in 1817 by isolating it as a salt.
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799 [ 2 ] ) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of latent heat , specific heat , and carbon dioxide .
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist , and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist .
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution ; 26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794; French pronunciation: [ɑ̃twan lɔʁɑ̃ də lavwazje] ), the " father of modern chemistry ," [ 1 ] was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology . [ 2 ] He named both oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and predicted silicon (1787). [ 3 ] He helped construct the metric system , put together the first extensive list of elements , and helped to reform chemical nomenclature.
Joseph Priestley , FRS (13 March 1733 ( O.S. ) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian , Dissenting clergyman , natural philosopher , chemist , educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a German- Swedish pharmaceutical chemist. Isaac Asimov called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit. For example, Scheele discovered oxygen (although Joseph Priestley published his findings first), and identified molybdenum , tungsten , barium , hydrogen, and chlorine before Humphry Davy , among others.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian [ 1 ] [ 2 ] physicist known for the invention of the battery in the 1800s. [ edit ] Early life and works
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov ( Russian : Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов ; IPA: [mʲɪxɐˈil vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ləmɐˈnosəf] ; November 19 [ O.S. November 8] 1711 – April 15 [ O.S.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist , meteorologist and physicist . He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory , and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour).