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There are 100 prisoners in solitary cells. There's a central living room with one light bulb; this bulb is initially off. No prisoner can see the light bulb from his or her own cell. Everyday, the warden picks a prisoner equally at random, and that prisoner visits the living room. While there, the prisoner can toggle the bulb if he or she wishes. Also, the prisoner has the option of asserting that all 100 prisoners have been to the living room by now.
SKI combinator calculus is a computational system that may be perceived as a reduced version of untyped lambda calculus . It can be thought of as a computer programming language, though it is not useful for writing software. Instead, it is important in the mathematical theory of algorithms because it is an extremely simple Turing complete language. All operations in lambda calculus are expressed in SKI as binary trees whose leaves are one of the three symbols S , K , and I (called combinators ).