The Smoking Pipe
See Scientific foreknowledge in sacred texts for alleged biblical anticipation of modern scientific discoveries. Some of the books of the Hebrew Bible contain descriptions of the physical world . Some have made the claim that these descriptions can be part of developing a history of science during Levant 's Iron Age . Others hold that since the descriptions are not themselves scientific, they have no place in the history of science. The school of thought known as Panbabylonianism took the Hebrew Bible as entirely derived from the culture and mythology of Babylonia as it stood during the 6th century BCE, during the Babylonian captivity . Current mainstream does allow for the possibility that some elements, particularly of the Torah , are independent of Babylonian influence, dating perhaps as early as the 9th or 10th century BCE, but the significant influence of Babylonian mythology and Babylonian cosmology on the worldview presented in the Tanakh is still beyond doubt.
Australopithecus (pronounced AW -struh/strey-loh- PITH -i-kuhs ; from Latin australis "southern", Greek πίθηκος pithekos "ape") is an extinct genus of hominids . From the evidence gathered by palaeontologists and archaeologists , it appears that the Australopithecus genus evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago. During this time period a number of australopith species emerged, including Australopithecus afarensis , A. africanus , A. anamensis , A. bahrelghazali , A. garhi and A. sediba . There is still some debate amongst academics whether certain African hominid species of this time, such as A. robustus and A. boisei , constitute members of the same genus; if so, they would be considered to be robust australopiths whilst the others would be considered gracile australopiths .
Lucy is the common name of AL 288-1 , several hundred pieces of bone representing about 40% of the skeleton of an individual Australopithecus afarensis . In paleoanthropology , usually only fossil fragments were found, and only rarely were skulls or ribs uncovered intact; thus this discovery was an astounding feat, that provided an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence. It was discovered in 1974 at Hadar in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia 's Afar Depression . Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago, [ 1 ] [ 3 ] and is either directly ancestral to humans, or evolutionarily close to our ancestor, hence it is classified as a hominin . [ 4 ] The skeleton shows evidence of small skull capacity akin to that of apes and of bipedal upright walk akin to that of humans , supporting the debated view that bipedalism preceded increase in brain size in human evolution. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]
Net migration rates for 2008: positive (blue), negative (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray) Mitochondrial DNA -based chart of large human migrations (Numbers are millennia before present.) Human migration is movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. Historically this movement was nomadic , often causing significant conflict with the indigenous population and their displacement or cultural assimilation . Only a few nomadic people have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire , England, about 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Amesbury and 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury . One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is the remains of a ring of standing stones set within earthworks . It is in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds . [ 1 ]