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The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language , listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq ) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties , their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of "official" kingship . Kingship was believed to have been handed down by the gods , and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region. [ 1 ] Throughout its Bronze Age existence, the document evolved into a political tool. Its final and single attested version, dating to the Middle Bronze Age , aimed to legitimize Isin 's claims to hegemony when Isin was vying for dominance with Larsa and other neighboring city-states in southern Mesopotamia . [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
The history of Sumer , taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5 th to 3 rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century BC. The first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was Eridu . The Sumerians claimed that their civilization had been brought, fully formed, to the city of Eridu by their god Enki or by his advisor (or Abgallu from ab =water, gal =big, lu =man), Adapa U-an (the Oannes of Berossus ). The first people at Eridu brought with them the Samarran culture from northern Mesopotamia and are identified with the Ubaid period , but it is not known whether or not these were Sumerians (associated later with the Uruk period ). [ 1 ] The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties.
Sumer (from Akkadian Šumeru ; Sumerian 𒆠𒂗𒂠 ki - en -ĝir 15 , approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land" [ note 1 ] ) [ 1 ] was an ancient civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia , modern Iraq , during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age .
Sumerian religion is the mythology , pantheon , rites , and cosmology of the Sumerian civilization. Mesopotamian mythology as a whole, surviving in the mythologies and religions of the Hurrians , Akkadians , Babylonians , Assyrians , and other culture groups. [ edit ] Worship [ edit ] Written cuneiform
Sumerian Gods Is Anu holding the symbolic Holy Grail of a Bloodline he created? British Museum
In Sumerian mythology , Anu (also An ; (from Sumerian *An 𒀭 = sky, heaven) was a sky-god, the god of heaven , lord of constellations , king of gods, spirits and demons , and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. It was believed that he had the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and that he had created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the royal tiara . His attendant and minister of state was the god Ilabrat . He was one of the oldest gods in the Sumerian pantheon and part of a triad including Enlil (god of the air) and Enki (god of water). He was called Anu by the later Akkadians in Babylonian culture.
The name of the Mesopotamian Skyfather and Lord of Firmament, or the Great Above, is written with the sign that means heaven. It also stands for the determinative of divinity in Sumerian, Akkadian, and Hittite. In Babylon, He is called Anu.
Arguments can be made that the evidence for ancient astronauts comes from supposed gaps in historical and archaeological records, and they also maintain that absent or incomplete explanations of historical or archaeological data point to the existence of ancient astronauts. The evidence is said to include archaeological artifacts that are beyond the presumed technical capabilities of the historical cultures with which they are associated. This also includes artwork and legends that are interpreted as depicting extraterrestrial contact or technologies. Notwithstanding these contentions, let us say that there is an axiom to the ancient astronaut theory. Then we need to ask, who were these beings? What did they represent to the inhabitants of earth?
Enlil with his wife, Ninlil Enlil (nlin), 𒂗𒇸 ( EN = Lord + LÍL = Storm, "Lord (of the) Storm") [ 1 ] was the name of a chief deity listed and written about in Sumerian religion , and later in Akkadian , Hittite , Canaanite and other Mesopotamian clay and stone tablets. The name is perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian, Hittite, and Canaanite literature.
Enki ( pron.: / ˈ ɛ ŋ k i / ) ( Sumerian : d EN.KI(G) 𒂗𒆠 ) is a god in Sumerian mythology , later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology . He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu , but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites , Hittites and Hurrians . He was the deity of crafts ( gašam ); mischief; water, seawater , lakewater ( a , aba , ab ), intelligence ( gestú , literally "ear") and creation ( Nudimmud : nu , likeness, dim mud , make bear). He was associated with the southern band of constellations called stars of Ea , but also with the constellation AŠ-IKU , the Field ( Square of Pegasus ). [ 1 ] Beginning around the second millennium BCE, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for "40," occasionally referred to as his "sacred number." [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk ) was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki.