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The Roman Kingdom ( Latin : REGNVM ROMANVM ) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories. Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it were written during the Republic and Empire and are largely based on legend. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding , traditionally dated to 753 BC with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in Central Italy , and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC.
The Roman Republic ( Latin : Res Publica Romana ) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic .
The Roman Empire ( Latin : Imperium Romanum ) was the post- Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization , characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean in Europe , Africa , and Asia . [ 5 ] The 500-year-old Roman Republic , which preceded it, had been destabilized through a series of civil wars .
Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome , succeeding Romulus . He was of Sabine origin, and many of Rome's most important religious and political institutions are attributed to him.