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Cannabidiol ( CBD ) is a cannabinoid found in cannabis . It is a major constituent of the plant, representing up to 40% in its extracts. [ 2 ] Compared to THC, cannabidiol, though psychoactive, is non-intoxicating, and is considered to have a wider scope of medical applications than THC, including to epilepsy, [ 3 ] multiple sclerosis spasms, [ 4 ] anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, [ 5 ] and nausea. Cannabidiol has displayed sedative effects in animal tests. [ 6 ] Some research, however, indicates that CBD can increase alertness. [ 7 ] It may decrease the rate of THC clearance from the body, perhaps by interfering with the metabolism of THC in the liver . Medically, it has been shown to relieve convulsion , inflammation , anxiety , and nausea , as well as inhibit cancer cell growth. [ 8 ] Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia . [ 9 ] Studies have also shown that it may relieve symptoms of dystonia . [ 10 ] [ 11 ]
Tetrahydrocannabinol ( pron.: / ˌ t ɛ t r ə ˌ h aɪ d r ɵ k ə ˈ n æ b ɨ n ɔː l / tet-rə- HY -drə-kə- NAB -i-nawl or pron.: / ˌ t ɛ t r ə ˌ h aɪ d r ɵ k ə ˈ n æ b ɨ n ɒ l / tet-rə- HY -drə-kə- NAB -i-nol ; [ 5 ] THC ), also known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ 9 -THC ), is the principal psychoactive constituent (or cannabinoid ) of the cannabis plant. First isolated in 1964, in its pure form, by Israeli scientists Raphael Mechoulam , Yechiel Gaoni and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] it is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. A pharmaceutical formulation of THC, known by its INN dronabinol , is available by prescription in the U.S. and Canada under the brand name Marinol . An aromatic terpenoid , THC has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents , specifically lipids and alcohols . [ 3 ]
The plant name cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις ( kánnabis ), via Latin cannabis , originally a Scythian or Thracian word, also loaned into Persian as kanab . English hemp ( Old English hænep ) may be an early loan (predating Grimm's Law ) from the same Scythian source. [ edit ] Word history The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest usages of cannabis meaning the plant "common hemp, Cannabis sativa " in 1548 and meaning parts of the plant "smoked, chewed, or drunk for their intoxicating or hallucinogenic properties" in 1848. [ 1 ] The OED traces the etymology to the New Latin botanical term cannabis – proposed in 1728 and standardized in Carolus Linnaeus 's (1753) Species Plantarum – from an earlier Latin cannabis , coming from Greek kánnabis . Ancient Greek kánnabis transcribed a Scythian term in the earliest (ca. 440 BCE) reference to recreational cannabis usage.