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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent ) [ 1 ] is a drug that inhibits anxiety. Some recreational drugs like alcoholic beverages (ethanol) induce anxiolysis.
Azapirones are a class of drugs used as anxiolytics and antipsychotics . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] They are commonly employed to augment antidepressants , such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ]
Tandospirone ( Sediel ), also known as metanopirone , is an anxiolytic and antidepressant used in China and Japan , where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma . It is a member of the azapirone and piperazine chemical classes and is closely related to other agents like buspirone and gepirone .
Gepirone ( Ariza , Variza ; BMY-13,805 , ORG-13,011 ) is a psychoactive drug and research chemical of the piperazine and azapirone chemical classes .
Eptapirone ( F-11,440 ) is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT 1A receptor full agonist of the azapirone class. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Its affinity for the 5-HT 1A receptor is 4.8 nM (K i ) or 8.33 (pK i ), and its intrinsic activity is 100% or equal to that of serotonin . [ 1 ] Eptapirone and its relatives such as F-13,640 and F-15,599 were developed under the notion that high receptor-activating efficacy is required for the maximal therapeutic benefits of 5-HT 1A receptor agonists to be realized, underlying the poor clinical effectiveness of currently marketed agents like buspirone and tandospirone which act as mere weak-moderate partial agonists . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ edit ] Rodent studies
Buspirone (pronounced / ˈ b juː s p ɨ r oʊ n / BEW -spi-rohn ), trade name Buspar (pronounced BYOO -spar ), is an anxiolytic psychoactive drug of the azapirone chemical class and is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). In 1986, Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for buspirone in the treatment of GAD. The BMS patent placed on buspirone expired in 2001 and buspirone is now available as a generic drug .
Pregabalin ( INN ) (Lyrica) ( pron.: / p r ɨ ˈ ɡ æ b əl ɨ n / ) is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. [ 1 ] It has also been found effective for generalized anxiety disorder and is (as of 2007) approved for this use in the European Union. [ 1 ] It was designed as a more potent successor to gabapentin . Pregabalin is marketed by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica .
Venlafaxine ( brand name : Effexor or Efexor ) is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] First introduced by Wyeth in 1993, now marketed by Pfizer , it is licensed for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), as a treatment for generalized anxiety disorder , and comorbid indications in certain anxiety disorders with depression. In 2007, venlafaxine was the sixth most commonly prescribed antidepressant on the U.S. retail market, with 17.2 million prescriptions. [ 5 ]
Hydroxyzine ( pron.: / h aɪ ˈ d r ɒ k s ɨ z iː n / ; sold as Vistaril , Atarax ) is a first-generation antihistamine of the diphenylmethane and piperazine classes. It was first synthesized by Union Chimique Belge in 1956 and was marketed by Pfizer in the United States later the same year, [ 2 ] and is still in widespread use today. Due to its antagonistic effects on several receptor systems in the brain, hydroxyzine has strong anxiolytic and mild antiobsessive as well as antipsychotic properties. [ 3 ] Today it is used primarily for the symptomatic relief of anxiety and tension associated with psychoneurosis and as an adjunct in organic disease states in which anxiety is manifested.
Meclozine ( INN , [ 1 ] or meclizine ) is an antihistamine considered to be an antiemetic .
Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea , vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness , vertigo and post-operatively following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids .
A benzodiazepine / ˌ b ɛ n z ɵ d aɪ ˈ æ z ɨ p iː n / (sometimes colloquially " benzo "; often abbreviated " BZD ") is a psychoactive drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche , which has also marketed diazepam (Valium) since 1963. [ 1 ]
Etizolam [ 1 ] (marketed under the brand name Etilaam , Etizola , Sedekopan , Pasaden or Depas ) is a thienodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog. The etizolam molecule differs from a benzodiazepine in that the benzene ring has been replaced by a thiophene ring. [ 2 ] It possesses amnesic , anxiolytic , anticonvulsant , hypnotic , sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. [ 3 ] [ edit ] Indications
Lorazepam (trademarked as Ativan ) is a high-potency, short- to intermediate-acting, 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine drug that has all six intrinsic benzodiazepine effects: anxiolytic , amnesic , sedative / hypnotic , anticonvulsant , antiemetic and muscle relaxant . [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Lorazepam is used for the short-term treatment of anxiety, insomnia, acute seizures including status epilepticus and sedation of hospitalized patients, as well as sedation of aggressive patients. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ]
Diazepam ( pron.: / d aɪ ˈ æ z ɨ p æ m / ), first marketed as Valium ( pron.: / ˈ v æ l i ə m / ) by Hoffmann-La Roche , is a benzodiazepine drug .