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Theory of mind

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Theory of mind (often abbreviated ToM) is the ability to attribute mental states — beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.

— to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.[1] Deficits occur in people with autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,[2] as well as neurotoxicity due to alcohol abuse.[3] Although there are philosophical approaches to this, the theory of mind as such is distinct from the philosophy of mind. Theory of mind. Definition[edit]

Theory of mind

Definition. Philosophical and Psychological roots. Development.

Empirical investigation

Deficits. Brain mechanisms. Theory of mind in Non-humans. Top 10 Common Faults In Human Thought. Humans The human mind is a wonderful thing.

Top 10 Common Faults In Human Thought

Cognition, the act or process of thinking, enables us to process vast amounts of information quickly. For example, every time your eyes are open, you brain is constantly being bombarded with stimuli. You may be consciously thinking about one specific thing, but you brain is processing thousands of subconscious ideas. Unfortunately, our cognition is not perfect, and there are certain judgment errors that we are prone to making, known in the field of psychology as cognitive biases. The Gambler’s fallacy is the tendency to think that future probabilities are altered by past events, when in reality, they are not. 5 Logical Fallacies That Make You Wrong More Than You Think.

Category mistake. A category mistake, or category error, is a semantic or ontological error in which "things of one kind are presented as if they belonged to another",[1] or, alternatively, a property is ascribed to a thing that could not possibly have that property.

Category mistake

Thomas Szasz argued that minds are not the sort of things that can be said to be diseased or ill because they belong to the wrong category and that "illness" is a term that can only be ascribed to things like the body; saying that the mind is ill is a misuse of words. Another example is the metaphor "time crawled", which if taken literally is not just false but a category mistake. To show that a category mistake has been committed one must typically show that once the phenomenon in question is properly understood, it becomes clear that the claim being made about it could not possibly be true. Gilbert Ryle[edit] The phrase is introduced in the first chapter.[2] The first example is of a visitor to Oxford. See also[edit] Dunning–Kruger effect. The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is.

Dunning–Kruger effect

Psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive incapacity, on the part of those with low ability, to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their competence accurately. Their research also suggests corollaries: high-ability individuals may underestimate their relative competence and may erroneously assume that tasks which are easy for them are also easy for others.[1] Dunning and Kruger have postulated that the effect is the result of internal illusion in those of low ability and external misperception in those of high ability: "The miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others.

"[1] Original study[edit] Supporting studies[edit] Historical antecedents[edit] 15 Styles of Distorted Thinking. Top 10 Thinking Traps Exposed. Our minds set up many traps for us. Unless we’re aware of them, these traps can seriously hinder our ability to think rationally, leading us to bad reasoning and making stupid decisions. 5 Logical Fallacies That Make You Wrong More Than You Think. The Internet has introduced a golden age of ill-informed arguments.

5 Logical Fallacies That Make You Wrong More Than You Think

You can't post a video of an adorable kitten without a raging debate about pet issues spawning in the comment section. These days, everyone is a pundit. But with all those different perspectives on important issues flying around, you'd think we'd be getting smarter and more informed. Unfortunately, the very wiring of our brains ensures that all these lively debates only make us dumber and more narrow-minded. For instance ... #5. Think about the last time you ran into a coworker or family member spouting some easily disproven conspiracy theory -- somebody who still thinks Obama's birth certificate is a fake or that Dick Cheney arranged 9/11 to cover up his theft of $2.3 trillion from the government.

That has literally never happened in the history of human conversation. Getty"OK, so Dick Cheney doesn't have a third arm. The Science: Yes, kids, being a dick works. So During Your Next Argument, Remember ... You do this, too. The Illusion of Asymmetric Insight. The Misconception: You celebrate diversity and respect others’ points of view.

The Illusion of Asymmetric Insight

The Truth: You are driven to create and form groups and then believe others are wrong just because they are others. Source: “Lord of the Flies,” 1963, Two Arts Ltd. In 1954, in eastern Oklahoma, two tribes of children nearly killed each other. 10 Ways Our Minds Warp Time. How time perception is warped by life-threatening situations, eye movements, tiredness, hypnosis, age, the emotions and more… The mind does funny things to our experience of time.

10 Ways Our Minds Warp Time

Just ask French cave expert Michel Siffre. In 1962 Siffre went to live in a cave that was completely isolated from mechanical clocks and natural light. He soon began to experience a huge change in his perception of time. When he tried to measure out two minutes by counting up to 120 at one-second intervals, it took him 5 minutes. But you don’t have to hide out in a cave for a couple of months to warp time, it happens to us all the time. 1. The Science of Why We Don't Believe Science. Illustration: Jonathon Rosen "A MAN WITH A CONVICTION is a hard man to change.

The Science of Why We Don't Believe Science

Tell him you disagree and he turns away. Show him facts or figures and he questions your sources. Comparative psychology. Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.

Comparative psychology

Research in this area addresses many different issues, uses many different methods, and explores the behavior of many different species, from insects to primates.[1][2] Comparative psychology is sometimes assumed to emphasize cross-species comparisons, including those between humans and animals. However, some researchers feel that direct comparisons should not be the sole focus of comparative psychology and that intense focus on a single organism to understand its behavior is just as desirable; if not more so. Donald Dewsbury reviewed the works of several psychologists and their definitions and concluded that the object of comparative psychology is to establish principles of generality focusing on both proximate and ultimate causation.[3] History[edit] One of Us. Essays These are stimulating times for anyone interested in questions of animal consciousness.

One of Us

On what seems like a monthly basis, scientific teams announce the results of new experiments, adding to a preponderance of evidence that we’ve been underestimating animal minds, even those of us who have rated them fairly highly. New animal behaviors and capacities are observed in the wild, often involving tool use—or at least object manipulation—the very kinds of activity that led the distinguished zoologist Donald R. The Brains of the Animal Kingdom. Animal cognition. Animal cognition is the study of the mental capacities of animals. Dogs spot the dog. Public release date: 14-Feb-2013 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: Joan Robinsonjoan.robinson@springer.com 49-622-148-78130Springer Dogs pick out faces of other dogs, irrespective of breeds, among human and other domestic and wild animal faces and can group them into a category of their own.

They do that using visual cues alone, according to new research by Dr. Dominique Autier-Dérian from the LEEC and National Veterinary School in Lyon in France and colleagues. Individuals from the same species get together for social life. Autier-Derian and team studied this phenomenon among domestic dogs, which have the largest morphological variety among all animal species.