Aesthetics. "Aesthetician" redirects here.
For a cosmetologist who specializes in the study of skin care, see Esthetician. Anatomy. Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of animals and their parts; it is also referred to as zootomy to separate it from human anatomy.
In some of its facets, anatomy is related to embryology and comparative anatomy, which itself is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. Definition Human compared to elephant frame. Architecture. Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral in the early 15th-century, not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect. Architecture (Latin architectura, after the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton – from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter, mason") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures.
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: Architecture has to do with planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience to reflect functional, technical, social, environmental and aesthetic considerations. The word "architecture" has also been adopted to describe other designed systems, especially in information technology. History Color theory. In the visual arts, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination.
There are also definitions (or categories) of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490), a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy around Isaac Newton's theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the nature of so-called primary colors.
From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science. Color abstractions The foundations of pre-20th-century color theory were built around "pure" or ideal colors, characterized by sensory experiences rather than attributes of the physical world. Composition (visual arts) Geometry. Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a body of practical knowledge concerning lengths, areas, and volumes, with elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as Thales (6th Century BC).
By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment—Euclidean geometry—set a standard for many centuries to follow. Archimedes developed ingenious techniques for calculating areas and volumes, in many ways anticipating modern integral calculus. In Euclid's time, there was no clear distinction between physical and geometrical space. Overview Practical geometry Axiomatic geometry
Manifold. The surface of the Earth requires (at least) two charts to include every point.
Here the globe is decomposed into charts around the North and South Poles. The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry and modern mathematical physics because it allows more complicated structures to be described and understood in terms of the relatively well-understood properties of Euclidean space. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations and as graphs of functions.
Manifolds may have additional features. Perspective (graphical) Staircase in two-point perspective.
Perspective (from Latin: perspicere to see through) in the graphic arts, such as drawing, is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are drawn: Visual arts education. Visual arts education is the area of learning that is based upon only what one can see, visual arts—drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc. and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings.
Contemporary topics include photography, video, film, design, computer art, etc. Overview The first recorded art schools were established in Italy, as mentioned by Leonardo Da Vinci. The Italians created beautiful free standing statues of people. They also created exquisite pottery covered with pictures of great landscape scenes. The Italian's art was similar to the style of the Greeks, though they preferred to create paintings of nature. Apprenticeship Historically art was taught in Europe via the atelier method system where artists took on apprentices who learned their trade in much the same way as that of guilds such as the stonemasons or goldsmiths.
Approaches Prominent models include: Visual perception. Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light.
The resulting perception is also known as eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision science. Visual system Main article: Visual system Note that up until now much of the above paragraph could apply to octopi, mollusks, worms, insects and things more primitive; anything with a more concentrated nervous system and better eyes than say a jellyfish.