Intelligence. Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in non-human animals and in plants.
Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings. §History of the term Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. §Definitions The definition of intelligence is controversial. From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. What is considered intelligent varies with culture.
Marriage. Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognized union or legal contract between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between them, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. The definition of marriage varies according to different cultures, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged.
In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, social, libidinal, emotional, financial, spiritual, and religious purposes. Who they marry may be influenced by socially determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire. Etymology The word "marriage" derives from Middle English mariage, which first appears in 1250–1300 CE. Definitions Monogamy. Parental investment. A human mother feeding her children It is held that parental investment starts from the point when the male and female copulate and the egg is fertilized.
The minimal obligatory parental investment for a human male is the effort required to copulate. On the other hand, the minimal obligatory parental investment for a human female is copulation, nine months of pregnancy and delivery. In that case the female investment outweighs the male investment. The difference of minimal obligatory investment between males and females suggests that the amount of investment and effort put into mating and parenting will also differ. Parental investment theory accounts for many of the differences between males and females: these were evolved in order to survive and reproduce. Beauty. The experience of "beauty" often involves an interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being.
Because this can be a subjective experience, it is often said that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder. " There is evidence that perceptions of beauty are evolutionarily determined, that things, aspects of people and landscapes considered beautiful are typically found in situations likely to give enhanced survival of the perceiving human's genes. Etymology The classical Greek noun for "beauty" was κάλλος, kallos, and the adjective for "beautiful" was καλός, kalos. Historical view of beauty Florence Cathedral and dome. Plato considered beauty to be the Idea (Form) above all other Ideas. Aristotle saw a relationship between the beautiful (to kalon) and virtue, arguing that "Virtue aims at the beautiful.
Bride price. Infanticide. Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
Neonaticide, killing within 24 hours of a child's birth, is most commonly done by the mother whereas infanticide of a child more than one day old is slightly more likely to be committed by the father. In many past societies, certain forms of infanticide were considered permissible. In some countries, female infanticide is more common than the killing of male offspring, due to sex-selective infanticide. History and pre-history The practice of infanticide has taken many forms. A frequent method of infanticide in ancient Europe and Asia was simply to abandon the infant, leaving it to die by exposure (i.e. hypothermia, hunger, thirst, or animal attack). Infant abandonment still occurs in modern societies. Paleolithic and Neolithic Many Neolithic groups routinely resorted to infanticide in order to control their numbers so that their lands could support them.
Promiscuity. Promiscuity, in human sexual behaviour, is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or of being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners. The term can carry a moral judgement and is viewed in the context of a mainstream social ideal for sexual activity to occur within exclusive committed relationships.
A common example of behavior viewed as promiscuous within the mainstream social ideals of many cultures is a one-night stand. What sexual behavior is considered promiscuous varies between cultures as does the prevalence of promiscuity, with different standards often being applied to different genders and civil status. Feminists have traditionally argued that there is a significant double standard between how men and women are judged for promiscuity.
Promiscuity is common in many animal species. Human promiscuity The number of sexual partners an individual has had in their lifetime varies widely within a population. Global studies