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Forgiveness. Forgiveness is the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as revenge, with an increased ability to wish the offender well.[1][2][3] Forgiveness is different from condoning (failing to see the action as wrong and in need of forgiveness), excusing (not holding the offender as responsible for the action), pardoning (granted by a representative of society, such as a judge), forgetting (removing awareness of the offence from consciousness), and reconciliation (restoration of a relationship).[1] In certain contexts, forgiveness is a legal term for absolving or giving up all claims on account of debt, loan, obligation or other claims.[4][5] As a psychological concept and virtue, the benefits of forgiveness have been explored in religious thought, the social sciences and medicine.


Research[edit] Dr. The research of Dr. Humility. Mercy. Mercy (Middle English, from Anglo-French merci, from Medieval Latin merced-, merces, from Latin, "price paid, wages", from merc-, merxi "merchandise") is a broad term that refers to benevolence, forgiveness and kindness in a variety of ethical, religious, social and legal contexts.[1][2][3][4] The concept of a "Merciful God" appears in various religions, including Christianity, Judaism and Islam.[1][2] Performing acts of mercy as a component of religious beliefs is also emphasized through actions such as the giving of alms, and care for the sick and Works of Mercy.[5][6] In the social and legal context, mercy may refer both to compassionate behavior on the part of those in power (e.g. mercy shown by a judge toward a convict), or on the part of a humanitarian third party, e.g., a mission of mercy aiming to treat war victims.[3][4] Religion[edit] Christianity[edit] Psalm 117 calls upon all nations to praise the Lord, and that on account of his "merciful kindness".


Modesty. Recreation on a California beach in the first decade of the 20th century Modesty is a mode of dress and deportment intended to avoid encouraging sexual attraction in others; actual standards vary widely.


In this use, it can be considered inappropriate or immodest to reveal certain parts of the body. A modest person would behave so as to avoid encouraging the sexual attention of others. In some societies, modesty may involve women covering their bodies completely and not talking to men who are not immediate family members; in others, a fairly revealing but one-piece bathing costume is considered modest when other women wear bikinis. In some countries, exposure of the body in breach of community standards of modesty is also considered to be public indecency, and public nudity is generally illegal in most of the world and regarded as indecent exposure. Small children are widely not expected to be fully clothed in public until they are grown up. Prudence. Although prudence would be applied to any such judgment, the more difficult tasks, which distinguish a person as prudent, are those in which various goods have to be weighed against each other, as when a person is determining what would be best to give charitable donations, or how to punish a child so as to prevent repeating an offense.


In modern English, the word has become increasingly synonymous with cautiousness. In this sense, prudence names a reluctance to take risks, which remains a virtue with respect to unnecessary risks, but when unreasonably extended (i.e. over-cautiousness), can become the vice of cowardice. In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle gives a lengthy account of the virtue phronesis (Greek: ϕρονησιϛ), which has traditionally been translated as "prudence", although this has become increasingly problematic as the word has fallen out of common usage. Self-control. In behavior analysis[edit] Another view is that self-control represents the locus of two conflicting contingencies of reinforcement, which then make a controlling response reinforcing when it causes changes in the controlled response.[2][3] Research[edit] Counteractive[edit] Desire is an affectively charged motivation toward a certain object, person, or activity that is associated with pleasure or relief from displeasure.[4] Desires vary in strength and duration.


A desire becomes a temptation, entering the area of self-control, if the behavior resulting from the desire conflicts with an individual’s values or other self-regulatory goals.[5][6] A limitation to research on desire is the issue of individuals desiring different things. Desires that conflict with overarching goals or values are known as temptations.[6][8] Self-control dilemmas occur when long-term goals and values clash with short-term temptations. Satiation[edit] Construal levels[edit] Human and non-human[edit] B.F. Self-regulation. The term self-regulation can signify:


Temperance (virtue) Representation of temperance (painted wood sculpture, dated 1683, which covers the shrine of the baptismal church Breton Commana in France).

Temperance (virtue)

Temperance foot backwards here a jug of wine, and presents a pitcher of water Themes of temperance can be seen across cultures and time, as illustrated here. Confucius encouraged modesty and self-control for the humane life. In the Analects, speaks of those who "choose to live simply (6:10), refrain from self-aggrandizing boasts (6:14) or extravagance (3:4), and place hard work before reward (6:22)" as virtuous.

In addition, the Taoist Lao-Tzu advocates temperance: He who becomes arrogant with wealth and sex . . . sows the seeds of his own misfortune [chap. 9] . . . he who boasts of his own achievements harms his credibility . . . he who is arrogant experiences no growth in wisdom [chap. 24] . . . he who knows glory, but keeps to humility . . . is sufficient in the eternal virtue [chap. 28]. " [1]