A country of fertile plains, high mountains and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Arab Alawites, Arab Sunnis, Arab Christians, Armenians, Assyrians, Druze, Kurds and Turks. Arab Sunnis make up the majority of the population.
In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as al-Sham) while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the third millennium BC. In the Islamic era, its capital city, Damascus, among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate, and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt.
The modern Syrian state was established after the first World War as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971.
Between 1958 and 1961, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt, which was terminated by a military coup. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000.
Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.
Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in civil war in the wake of uprisings (considered an extension of the Arab Spring, the mass movement of revolutions and protests in the Arab world) against Assad and the neo-Ba'athist government. An alternative government was formed by the opposition umbrella group, the Syrian National Coalition, in March 2012.
Representatives of this government were subsequently invited to take up Syria's seat at the Arab League.
Syria. Syria ( i/ˈsɪriə/ SIRR-ee-ə ; Arabic: سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Its capital Damascus is among the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Alawite, Sunni and Christian Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Druze, Kurds, and Turks. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria. Outline of Syria. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Syria: Syria – country in Western Asia, that borders Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south and Israel to the southwest.
Civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth. Syria is part of the Fertile Crescent, and from approximately 10,000 BCE it was one of the centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. Over the millennia, Syria has been conquered and settled by many different peoples. A country of fertile plains, high mountains and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, Christians, Druze, Alawite Shias and Arab Sunnis. General reference Etymology. Name of Syria. In Greek usage, Syria and Assyria were used almost interchangeably, although Herodotus' clarifications were a notable exception. Connection between the names of Syria and Assyria Various theories have been advanced as to the etymological connections between the two terms.
Some scholars suggest that the term Assyria included a definite article, similar to the function of the Arabic language "Al-". Theodor Nöldeke in 1881 gave philological support to the assumption that Syria and Assyria have the same etymology, a suggestion going back to John Selden (1617) rooted in his own Hebrew tradition about the descent of Assyrians from Jokshan. Current academic opinion strongly favours the connection. A Hieroglyphic Luwian and Phoenician bilingual monumental inscription found in Çineköy, Turkey, (the Çineköy inscription) belonging to Urikki, vassal king of Que (i.e. See also References Additional Reading
Demographics of Syria. Economy of Syria. Geography of Syria. History of Syria. Politics of Syria. Kurdish nationalism. "Kurdistan independence movement" redirects here.
For the article on the region, see Kurdistan. Kurdish nationalism is the political movement holding that the Kurdish people are deserving of a sovereign nation in their homeland, Kurdistan, partitioned out of the territories in which Kurdish people form a majority. Currently, these territories lie in northern Iraq (including, but not limited to, Iraqi Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Iranian Kurdistan), southeastern Turkey (Turkish Kurdistan), and small parts of northern and northeastern Syria (Syrian Kurdistan).
Kurdish nationalism has long been espoused and promoted by the worldwide Kurdish diaspora. History Kurdistan in an antique map. Ottoman Empire Saladin's heroism and leadership was a great inspiration for the rise of Kurdish nationalism during the Ottoman Empire. Kurdistan. Kurdistan /ˌkɜːrdɪˈstɑːn/ (Kurdish: [ˌkurdɪˈstan]; "Homeland of the Kurds or Land of the Kurds"; also formerly spelled Curdistan; ancient name: Corduene) or Greater Kurdistan, is a roughly defined geo-cultural region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population, and Kurdish culture, language, and national identity have historically been based. Kurdistan roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges. Iraqi Kurdistan first gained autonomous status in a 1970 agreement with the Iraqi government, and its status was re-confirmed as an autonomous entity within the federal Iraqi republic in 2005. There is a province by the name Kurdistan in Iran; it is not self-ruled.
Kurds fighting in the Syrian Civil War were able to take control of large sections of northern Syria as forces loyal to Bashar al-Assad withdrew to fight elsewhere. History Ancient period Medieval period Modern period Turkey People. Syrian Civil War. The Syrian Civil War (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية السورية) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict with international interventions taking place in Syria.
The unrest began in the early spring of 2011 within the context of the Arab Spring protests, with nationwide protests against President Bashar al-Assad's government, whose forces responded with violent crackdowns. The conflict gradually morphed from mass protests to an armed rebellion after months of military sieges. A United Nations report released in December, 2012, stated that the conflict had "become overtly sectarian in nature", between Alawite–dominated government forces, militias and other Shia groups fighting primarily against Sunni-dominated rebel groups; however both opposition and government forces denied that. Background Assad government Pro-government demonstration in Latakia, heartland of Assad's Alawite people Demographics Socio-economics Human rights
"Cizre Is Like Kobanê and Sinjar Now": KQ Exclusive Interview With Faysal Sariyildiz - Part 1. 13 February 2016 Kurdish Question Peoples' Democratic Party Şırnak deputy Faysal Sarıyıldız has been the only source of information from inside the besieged district of Cızre for the past two months.
He has informed public opinion through social media and made many appeals to International organisations to end the siege in Cizre and prevent the massacre of civilians. Sarıyıldız was first elected to Parliament in 2011 as a candidate of the Peace and Democracy Party (BDP), the predecessor of the HDP, while he was in prison for alleged membership of a terrorist organisation. He was arrested in 2009 as part of the KCK operations and released in 2014 without being tried or sentenced.
Kurdish Question interviewed Mr. We are publishing the first part of this exclusive interview below. Where are you now Mr. The PKK and Syria's Kurds. Publication: Terrorism Monitor Volume: 5 Issue: 3 February 21, 2007 03:53 PM Age: 9 yrs Category: Terrorism Monitor, Middle East A PKK fighter on Mount Qandil.