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Surgical alteration of the Penis

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The penis is sometimes pierced or decorated by other body art. Other than circumcision, genital alterations are almost universally elective and usually for the purpose of aesthetics or increased sensitivity.

Piercings of the penis include the Prince Albert, the apadravya, the ampallang, the dydoe, and the frenum piercing. Foreskin restoration or stretching is a further form of body modification, as well as implants under the shaft of the penis.

Male to female transsexuals who undergo sex reassignment surgery, have their penis surgically modified into a neovagina. Female to male transsexuals may have a phalloplasty.

Other practices that alter the penis are also performed, although they are rare in Western societies without a diagnosed medical condition. Apart from a penectomy, perhaps the most radical of these is subincision, in which the urethra is split along the underside of the penis. Subincision originated among Australian Aborigines, although it is now done by some in the U.S. and Europe.

Penis removal is another form of alteration done to the penis.

Genital modification and mutilation. The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to human sex organs.

Genital modification and mutilation

Some forms of genital alteration are performed at the behest of an adult, with their informed consent. Other forms are performed on people who do not give informed consent, including infants or children. Any of these procedures may be considered modifications or mutilations by different groups of people. Body modification[edit] Many types of genital modification are performed at the behest of the individual, for personal, sexual, aesthetic or cultural reasons. Clitoris enlargement may be achieved temporarily through the use of a clitoral pump, or it may be achieved permanently through application of testosterone cream to the clitoris, or through injectable testosterone. Voluntary sex reassignment[edit]

Prince Albert (genital piercing) Apadravya. The apadravya[pronunciation?]

Apadravya

, like the ampallang, is a piercing that passes through the glans. While the ampallang passes horizontally through the glans, the apadravya passes vertically through the glans from top to bottom, almost always placed centrally and passing through the urethra. Off-center apadravyas are also possible, wherein the piercing is deliberately offset, yet usually still passes through the urethra. Ampallang. Dydoe. A dydoe is a type of male genital body piercing that passes through the ridge of the glans on the head of the penis.

Dydoe

Commonly, one is centrally placed on the ridge of the glans (as seen at right), or two are placed on either side (picture below). Less often, a "king's crown" is where several dydoes are placed around the head of the penis. The jewelry is usually a 14 gauge, curved barbell with a ball on either end, although a ring may be used at a higher chance of rejection. A deep dydoe (also known as "Zephyr") is one that uses a longer barbell and exits near the tip of the penis. The word dydoe is thought to come from the word 'doodad', which means 'a decorative embellishment', as it can be visually attractive to some. Frenum piercing. Placement[edit] Frenum piercings are almost always pierced perpendicular to the shaft of the penis.

Frenum piercing

They may be pierced through the frenum that connects the head of the penis to the shaft, or anywhere further down the shaft of the penis. Less commonly, frenum piercings may be pierced along the top or even the sides of the shaft of the penis. The Frenum piercing is the 2nd most popular to the Prince Albert(PA) piercing. Healing[edit] Curved 14 gauge barbell 24 hours after initial piercing, mild bruising present on right side of penile shaft below piercing due to piercing clamp. Frenum piercings generally require from two to five weeks to heal fully. Those wishing to stretch this piercing to accommodate larger gauge jewelry should wait until at least two weeks after the initial piercing has fully healed. Jewelry[edit] 10 gauge straight barbell used in a frenum piercing.

History and culture[edit] Frenum ladder[edit] Less common is a lorum ladder which consists of a series of lorum piercings. Foreskin restoration. Foreskin restoration is the process of expanding the residual skin on the penis, through surgical or non-surgical methods, in an attempt to expand or restore the foreskin, which may have been removed by circumcision, with new tissue.

Foreskin restoration

Motivation[edit] Foreskin restoration can be attempted for several reasons, among them being a desire to create the appearance of a natural foreskin (prepuce) covering the glans, or to increase sexual sensitivity of the glans and the interior of the restored foreskin, or to reduce discomfort due to exposure of sensitive areas during everyday activities. Phalloplasty. Phalloplasty is the construction or reconstruction of a penis, or the artificial modification of the penis by surgery, often for cosmetic purposes.

Phalloplasty

The term phalloplasty is also occasionally used to refer to penis enlargement. The first phalloplasty done for the purposes of sexual reassignment was performed on trans man Michael Dillon in 1946 by Dr. Harold Gillies, which is documented in Pagan Kennedy's book The First Man-Made Man. Indications[edit] Penectomy. Genital area of male after partial penectomy.

Penectomy

Penectomy is penis removal through surgery, generally for medical or personal reasons. For the removal of the penis other than by surgery (e.g. torture), see penis removal. Penis removal. In ancient civilizations, the removal of the penis was sometimes used to demonstrate superiority or dominance over an enemy.

Penis removal

Armies were sometimes known to sever the penises of their enemies to count the dead, as well as for trophies. The practice of castration (removal of the testicles) sometimes involved the removal of all or part of the penis, generally with a tube inserted to keep the urethra open for urination. Castration has been used to create a class of servants or slaves called eunuchs in many different places and eras. In the modern era, removing the human penis for any such activity is very rare (with some exceptions listed below), and references to removal of the penis are almost always symbolic. Castration is less rare, and is performed as a last resort in the treatment of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer.[1][2][3] Penis removal in medicine and psychology[edit] Some men have penile amputations, known as penectomies, for medical reasons.

China[edit] Japan[edit] 1800s[edit] Circumcision. The positions of the world's major medical organizations range from considering neonatal circumcision as having no benefit and significant risks to having a modest health benefit that outweighs small risks.

Circumcision

No major medical organization recommends either universal circumcision for all infant males (aside from the recommendations of the World Health Organization for parts of Africa), or banning the procedure.[7] Ethical and legal questions regarding informed consent and autonomy have been raised over non-therapeutic neonatal circumcision.[8][9] Indications and contraindications Routine or elective Owing to the HIV/AIDS epidemic there, sub-Saharan Africa is a special case. Medical indications.