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Stimulants

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Amphetamine (dextroamphetamine, and a related, slightly more powerful drug methamphetamine, etc.) are used to treat narcolepsy. Their most common effects are anxiety, insomnia, stimulation, increased alertness, and decreased hunger.



Caffeine is a stimulant that works by slowing the action of the hormones in the brain that cause somnolence, particularly by acting as an antagonist at adenosine receptors. Effective dosage is individual, in part dependent on prior usage. It can cause a rapid reduction in alertness as it wears off.

Cocaine and crack cocaine – Studies on cocaine have shown its effects to be mediated through the circadian rhythm system.[104] This may be related to the onset of hypersomnia (oversleeping) in regard to "cocaine-induced sleep disorder."

MDMA, including similar drugs like MDA, MMDA, or bk-MDMA – The class of drugs called empathogen-entactogens keep users awake with intense euphoria.

Methylphenidate – Commonly known by the brand names Ritalin and Concerta, methylphenidate is similar in action to amphetamine and cocaine; its chemical composition more closely resembles that of cocaine.

Tobacco – Tobacco has been found not only to disrupt but also to reduce total sleep time. In studies, users have described more daytime drowsiness than nonsmokers.

Cannabis (drug) Cannabis is often consumed for its psychoactive and physiological effects, which can include heightened mood or euphoria, relaxation,[10] and an increase in appetite.[11] Unwanted side-effects can sometimes include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills, reddening of the eyes,[10] and feelings of paranoia or anxiety.[12] Effects Main short-term physical effects of cannabis A 2013 literature review said that exposure to marijuana had biologically-based physical, mental, behavioral and social health consequences and was "associated with diseases of the liver (particularly with co-existing hepatitis C), lungs, heart, and vasculature".[21] The medicinal value of cannabis is disputed.

Cannabis (drug)

The American Society of Addiction Medicine dismisses the concept of medical cannabis because the plant fails to meet its standard requirements for approved medicines. Neurological Gateway drug Safety Varieties and strains. Amphetamine. Caffeine. Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.[10] It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug.

Caffeine

Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is that it reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor and consequently prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine also stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system. Cocaine. Cocaine (INN) (benzoylmethylecgonine, an ecgonine derivative) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.[5] The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix "-ine", forming "cocaine".

Cocaine

It is a stimulant, an appetite suppressant, and a nonspecific voltage gated sodium channel blocker, which in turn causes it to produce anaesthesia at low doses. Biologically, cocaine acts as a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI). It is addictive due to its effect on the mesolimbic reward pathway.[6] It is markedly more dangerous than other CNS stimulants, including the entire amphetamine drug class,[7] at high doses due to its effect on sodium channels, as blockade of Nav1.5 can cause sudden cardiac death.

Crack cocaine. Crack cocaine ‘rocks’.

Crack cocaine

Appearance and characteristics In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges,[3] with a slightly higher density than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form[3] (snaps when broken). A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic (see: cocaine), numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed. Purer forms of crack will sink in water or melt at the edges when near a flame (crack vaporizes at 90 °C, 194 °F).[2] Crack cocaine as sold on the streets may be adulterated or "cut" with other substances mimicking the appearance of crack cocaine to increase bulk.

Chemistry In order for cocaine (in plastic bag at bottom) to be converted to crack, several supplies are needed. A close up of the "cooking" process that creates crack. Tobacco. Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes.

Tobacco

The chief commercial species, N. tabacum, is believed to have been native to tropical America, like most nicotiana plants, but has been so long cultivated that it is no longer known in the wild. MDMA. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs.

MDMA

MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3] MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, diminished anxiety, and mild psychedelia. Many studies, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggested MDMA has therapeutic benefits and facilitates therapy sessions in certain individuals, a practice for which it had been formally used in the past.

Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety associated with terminal cancer[4][5] and addiction.[6] Methylphenidate. Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy.

Methylphenidate

The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug became heavily prescribed in the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted.[1][2] Uses[edit] Medical[edit] Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit] Methylphenidate is approved by the U.S. Methylphenidate's long-term efficacy in ADHD treatment has been questioned because of a lack of long-term studies.[16] A 2010 study suggested that, "there is increasing evidence... Some research suggests that methylphenidate treatment need not be indefinite. Analeptic. An analeptic, in medicine, is a central nervous system stimulant medication.

Analeptic

The term analeptic may also refer specifically to a respiratory analeptic (for example, doxapram), a drug that acts on the central nervous system to stimulate the breathing muscles, improving respiration. Other drugs of this category are Prethcamide and Nikethamide.