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Clinical significance and diseases of the Lymphatic system

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The study of lymphatic drainage of various organs is important in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancer.

The lymphatic system, because of its physical proximity to many tissues of the body, is responsible for carrying cancerous cells between the various parts of the body in a process called metastasis. The intervening lymph nodes can trap the cancer cells. If they are not successful in destroying the cancer cells the nodes may become sites of secondary tumors. Manual lymphatic drainage. Manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) is a type of gentle massage which is intended to encourage the natural drainage of the lymph, which carries waste products away from the tissues back toward the heart.

Manual lymphatic drainage

Lymphatic system nursing assessment. The function of the lymphatic system is to: collect and return fluid and plasma protein to the blood which will help maintain fluid balancedefend the body against disease by producing lymphocytesabsorb lipids from the intestinal tract and transport them to the blood Head/Neck Lymph Nodes[edit] The greatest supply of lymph nodes are located in the head and neck.

Lymphatic system nursing assessment

Sources tend to differ on the name of these lymph nodes. These particular names of the lymph nodes used correspond to adjacent structures. Nursing Assessment[edit] Using a gentle circular motion with your finger pads palpate each lymph node in the order previously stated. Abnormal Findings[edit] If any nodes are palpable, note their location, size, shape, borders, mobility, consistency and tenderness.

Kikuchi disease. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) was described in 1972 in Japan.

Kikuchi disease

It is also known as Kikuchi disease, histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, Kikuchi necrotizing lymphadenitis, phagocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, subacute necrotizing lymphadenitis, and necrotizing lymphadenitis.[1][2][3][4] It was first described in Japan by Dr Masahiro Kikuchi in 1972[5] and independently by Y. Fujimoto. Epidemiology[edit] Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a rare, self-limiting disorder that typically affects the cervical lymph nodes.

Kikuchi's disease is a very rare disease and mainly seen in Japan. Pathophysiology[edit] Some studies have suggested a genetic predisposition to the proposed autoimmune response. There are many postulates about the etiology of KFD. Clinical Features[edit] The signs and symptoms of Kikuchi's disease are fever, lymphadenopathy, skin rashes and headache. For other causes of lymph node enlargement, see lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis[edit] It is diagnosed by lymph node excision biopsy. Manual lymphatic drainage. Lymphatic system nursing assessment. Lymphoma. Lymphoma is a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphocytes.[1] It is sometimes used to refer to just the cancerous ones rather than all tumors.[1] Symptoms may include: enlarged lymph nodes that are not generally painful, fevers, sweats, itchiness, weight loss and feeling tired among others.[2][3] The sweats are most common at night.[2][3] There are two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL),[4] with two others, multiple myeloma and immunoproliferative diseases, also included by the World Health Organization within the category.[5] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma makes up about 90% of cases and includes a large number of sub-types.[4][6] Lymphomas are part of the broader group of neoplasms called tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.[7] Signs and symptoms[edit] Lymphoma and lymphatic system Lymphoma presents with certain non-specific symptoms.

Lymphoma

If symptoms are persistent, lymphoma needs to be excluded medically. Lymphedema. Lymphedema (lymphoedema in British English), also known as lymphatic obstruction, is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system, which normally returns interstitial fluid to the thoracic duct and then the bloodstream.

Lymphedema

The condition can be inherited, though it is frequently caused by cancer treatments, and by parasitic infections. Though incurable and progressive, a number of treatments can ameliorate symptoms. Tissues with lymphedema are at risk of infection. Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or fullness, edema, and aching pain in the affected area.

Lymphedema should not be confused with edema arising from venous insufficiency, which is not lymphedema. Presented here is an extreme case of severe unilateral hereditary lymphedema which had been present for 25 years without treatment: Lymphadenopathy.