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Clinical significance, diseases and disorders of the Cervix

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Cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection appears to be involved in the development of more than 90% of cases;[3][4] most people who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop cervical cancer.[5][6] Other risk factors include: smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age and having many sexual partners, but these are less important.[1][7] Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes over 10 to 20 years.[5] There are a few types of cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer

About 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma and a small number are other types.[7] Diagnosis is typically by cervical screening followed by a biopsy. Medical imaging is then done to determine whether or not the cancer has spread.[1] Cervicitis. Causes[edit] Cervicitis can be caused by any of a number of infections, of which the most common are chlamydia and gonorrhea, with chlamydia accounting for approximately 40% of cases.[4] Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex are less common causes of cervicitis.


The role of Mycoplasma genitalium and bacterial vaginosis in causing cervicitis is still under investigation.[5] Stenosis of uterine cervix. Cervical stenosis means that the opening in the cervix (the endocervical canal) is more narrow than is typical.

Stenosis of uterine cervix

In some cases, the endocervical canal may be completely closed. A stenosis is any passage in the body that is more narrow than it should typically be. Symptoms[edit] According to the Nezhat Medical Center,[1] "symptoms depend on whether the cervical canal is partially or completely obstructed and on the patient's menopausal status. Pre-menopausal patients will have a build up of blood inside the uterus which causes sporadic bleeding and pelvic pain. Impact[edit] Clear-cell adenocarcinoma. Cervical agenesis. Bicornuate uterus. A bicornuate uterus or bicornate uterus (from the Latin cornū, meaning "horn"), commonly referred to as a "heart-shaped" uterus, is a uterus composed of two "horns" separated by a septum.

Bicornuate uterus

In humans, a bicornuate uterus is a type of uterine malformation, but in some other mammalian species, including rodents and pigs, it is normal. Uterus didelphys. "Didelphys" redirects here.

Uterus didelphys

For the genus commonly known as large American opossums, see didelphis. Uterus didelphys (sometimes also uterus didelphis) represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ when the embryogenetic fusion of the Müllerian ducts fails to occur. As a result there is a double uterus with two separate cervices, and often a double vagina as well. Each uterus has a single horn linked to the ipsilateral fallopian tube that faces its ovary. In non human species (e.g. nematodes), a didelphic genital tract may be normal rather than a malformation.

Cervical polyp. Cause[edit] The cause of cervical polyps is uncertain, but they are often associated with inflammation of the cervix.[2] They may also occur as a result of raised levels of estrogen or clogged cervical blood vessels.[3] Symptoms[edit] Cervical polyps often show no symptoms.[4] Where there are symptoms, they include intermenstrual bleeding, abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal women, bleeding after sex and thick white vaginal or yellowish discharge (leukorrhoea).[3][5][6][7]

Cervical polyp

Cervical ectropion. Cervical ectropion (or cervical eversion) is a condition in which the central (endocervical) columnar epithelium protrudes out through the external os of the cervix and onto the vaginal portion of the cervix, undergoes squamous metaplasia, and transforms to stratified squamous epithelium.[1] Although not an abnormality, it is indistinguishable from early cervical cancer; therefore, further diagnostic studies (e.g., Pap smear, biopsy) must be performed for a differential diagnosis.[2] Formation[edit] The squamocolumnar junction, where the columnar secretory epithelium of the endocervical canal meets the stratified squamous covering of the ectocervix, is located at the external os before puberty.

Cervical ectropion

As estrogen levels rise during puberty, the cervical os opens, exposing the endocervical columnar epithelium onto the ectocervix. This area of columnar cells on the ectocervix forms an area that is red and raw in appearance called an ectropion (cervical erosion). Cervical pregnancy. A Cervical pregnancy is an ectopic pregnancy that has implanted in the uterine endocervix.[1] Such a pregnancy typically aborts within the first trimester, however, if it is implanted closer to the uterine cavity - a so-called cervico-isthmic pregnancy - it may continue longer.[2] Placental removal in a cervical pregnancy may result in major hemorrhage.

Cervical pregnancy

Incidence[edit] The incidence has been reported to be about 1:1,000 to 1: 16,000 pregnancies.[3][4][5] Diagnosis[edit] The diagnosis is made in asymptomatic pregnant women either by inspection seeing a bluish discolored cervix or, more commonly, by obstetric ultrasonography. A typical non-specific symptom is vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. Management[edit] True cervical pregnancies tend to abort, if, however, the pregnancy is located higher in the canal and the placenta finds support in the uterine cavity it can go past the first trimester. References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b Lin EP, Bhatt S, Dogra VS. (2008).