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Clinical significance, diseases, and disorders

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Anorchia. Anorchia (or anorchism) is an XY Disorder of Sex Development in which individuals have both testes absent at birth.


Within a few weeks of fertilization, the embryo develops rudimentary gonads (testes), which produce hormones responsible for the development of the reproductive system. If the testes fail to develop within eight weeks, the baby will develop female genitalia (see Swyer syndrome). If the testes begin to develop but are lost or cease to function between eight and 10 weeks, the baby will have ambiguous genitalia when it is born. However, if the testes are lost after 14 weeks, the baby will have partial male genitalia with the notable absence of gonads. Treatment[edit] Treatment includes androgen (testosterone) supplementation to artificially initiate puberty, testicular prosthetic implantation, and psychological support.

Other names[edit] Other names for anorchia include congenital anorchiavanishing testes syndromevanishing testesempty scrotumtesticular regression syndrome (TRS) Cryptorchidism. Cryptorchidism (derived from the Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, meaning hidden ὄρχις, orchis, meaning testicle) is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.


It is a common birth defect regarding male genitalia. In unique cases, cryptorchidism can develop later in life, often as late as young adulthood. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born with at least one undescended testis. Polyorchidism. Infertility. Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.


It is usually not the natural state of a healthy adult organism, except notably among certain eusocial species (mostly haplodiploid insects). In humans, infertility may describe a woman who is unable to conceive as well as being unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological and other causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat.[1] Infertility rates have increased by 4% since the 1980s, mostly from problems with fecundity due to an increase in age.[2] About 40% of the issues involved with infertility are due to the man, another 40% due to the woman, and 20% result from complications with both partners.[3]

List of homologues of the human reproductive system. Problems donating?

List of homologues of the human reproductive system

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Sterilization (medicine)

For sterilization of other animals, see Neutering. Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is any of a number of medical techniques that intentionally leave a person unable to reproduce. It is a method of birth control. For other causes of sterility, see infertility. Sterilization methods include both surgical and non-surgical, and exist for both males and females. Most female sterilizations occur in developing countries, while vasectomies are mainly the product of industrialized countries. Surgical sterilization methods include: Tubal ligation in females, known popularly as "having one's tubes tied". Transluminal procedures are performed by entry through the female reproductive tract. Testicondy. Protection and injury. Testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.

Testicular cancer

Not all lumps on the testicles are tumors, and not all tumors are malignant (cancerous). There are many other conditions, such as testicular microlithiasis, epididymal cysts, and appendix testis (hydatid of Morgagni), which may be painful but are non-cancerous. Epididymitis. Epididymitis ( i/ˌɛpɪˌdɪdəˈmaɪtɪs/, ěp'ĭ-dĭd'ə-mī'tĭs, EP-i-DID-i-MEYE-tis) is a medical condition characterized by discomfort or pain of the epididymis, a curved structure at the back of the testicle in which sperm matures and is stored.


Epididymitis is usually characterized as either acute or chronic: if acute, the onset of testicular pain is often accompanied by inflammation, redness, and warmth in the scrotum; if chronic, pain may be the only symptom. Testicular torsion. Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord (from which the testicle is suspended) twists, cutting off the testicle's blood supply, a condition called ischemia.

Testicular torsion

The principal symptom is rapid onset of testicular pain. The most common underlying cause is a congenital malformation known as a "bell-clapper deformity" wherein the testis is inadequately affixed to the scrotum allowing it to move freely on its axis and susceptible to induced twisting of the cord and its vessels. The diagnosis should usually be made on the presenting signs and symptoms[1] and an urgent ultrasound should only be done when the diagnosis is unclear.[1] Irreversible ischemia begins around six hours after onset and emergency diagnosis and treatment is required within this time to minimize the risk of testicle loss.

It is most common just after birth and during puberty.[1] It occurs in about 1 in 4,000 to 1 per 25,000 males per year before 25 years of age.[2][3][1] Signs and symptoms[edit] Risk factors[edit] Neoplasm. In modern medicine, the term tumour means a neoplasm that has formed a lump.


In the past, the term tumour was used differently,[citation needed] to refer to a lump of any cause. Some neoplasms do not cause a lump. Hydrocele testis. A hydrocele testis is an accumulation of clear fluid in the tunica vaginalis, the most internal of membranes containing a testicle.

Hydrocele testis

A primary hydrocele causes a painless enlargement in the scrotum on the affected side and is thought to be due to the defective absorption of fluid secreted between the two layers of the tunica vaginalis (investing membrane). A secondary hydrocele is secondary to either inflammation or a neoplasm in the testis. A hydrocele usually occurs on one side, but can also affect both sides. The accumulation can be a marker of physical trauma, infection or tumor, but the cause is generally unknown. Hydrocele normally is seen in infant boys, as enlarged scrotum. Cause[edit] Varicocele. Varicocele in ultrasound (left: testicle) Testicular pain. Testicular or scrotal pain occurs when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt.

Pain in the scrotum is also often included. Testicular pain may be either acute, subacute or chronic depending on its duration. Causes rank from benign muscular skeletal problems to emergency conditions such as Fournier's gangrene and testicular torsion. Pain management is typically given with definitive management depending on the underlying cause. Testicular disease. Testicular diseases can be classified as endocrine disorders or as a disorders of the reproductive system. The testicles are well-known to be very sensitive to impact and injury. Effects of Exogenous hormones.