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Scope of Biophysics research

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Environment (biophysical) The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution.[1] The biophysical environment can vary in scale from microscopic to global in extent.

Environment (biophysical)

It can also be subdivided according to its attributes. Examples include the marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment.[2] The number of biophysical environments is countless, given that each living organism has its own environment. The term environment is often used as a short form for the biophysical environment, e.g. the UK's Environment Agency. The expression "the environment" often refers to a singular global environment in relation to humanity. All life that has survived must have adapted to conditions of its environment. The ecosystem of public parks often includes humans feeding the wildlife.

Motility. In biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process.

Motility

Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in addition to animal locomotion. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming. Motility may also refer to an organism's ability to move food through its digestive tract, i.e., peristaltics (gut motility, intestinal motility, etc.).[1] Cellular-level motility[edit] At the cellular level, different modes of motility exist: Many cells are not motile, for example Yersinia pestis at 37 °C, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella.

Movements[edit] The events that are perceived as movements can be directed: Biomineralization. Glomerula piloseta (Sabellidae), longitudinal section of the tube, aragonitic spherulitic prismatic structure IUPAC definition Mineralization caused by cell-mediated phenomena.[1][a] Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, [2]often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

Biomineralization

Such tissues are called mineralized tissues. It is an extremely widespread phenomenon; all six taxonomic kingdoms contain members that are able to form minerals, and over 60 different minerals have been identified in organisms.[3][4][5] Examples include silicates in algae and diatoms, carbonates in invertebrates, and calcium phosphates and carbonates in vertebrates. Biomechanics. Page of one of the first works of Biomechanics (De Motu Animalium of Giovanni Alfonso Borelli) Word history[edit] The word "biomechanics" (1899) and the related "biomechanical" (1856) were coined by Nikolai Bernstein[citation needed] from the Ancient Greek βίος bios "life" and μηχανική, mēchanikē "mechanics", to refer to the study of the mechanical principles of living organisms, particularly their movement and structure.[3] Method[edit] Usually biological systems are much more complex than man-built systems.

Biomechanics

Numerical methods are hence applied in almost every biomechanical study. Subfields[edit] Applied subfields of biomechanics include: Sports biomechanics[edit] In sports biomechanics, the laws of mechanics are applied to human movement in order to gain a greater understanding of athletic performance and to reduce sport injuries as well. Animal locomotion. Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements that results in progression from one place to another.[1] Some modes of locomotion are (initially) self-propelled, e.g. running, swimming, jumping, flying, soaring and gliding.

Animal locomotion

There are also many animal species that depend on their environment for transportation, a type of mobility called passive locomotion, e.g. sailing (some jellyfish), kiting (spiders) and rolling (some beetles and spiders). Animals move for a variety of reasons, such as to find food, a mate, a suitable microhabitat, or to escape predators. For many animals, the ability to move is essential for survival and, as a result, natural selection has shaped the locomotion methods and mechanisms used by moving organisms. Biomolecular structure. Structure of the protein 1EFN Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a protein, DNA, or RNA molecule, and that is important to its function.

Biomolecular structure

The structure of these molecules is frequently decomposed into primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, and quaternary structure. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements that are hydrogen bonds within the molecule. Biomolecule. A biomolecule is any molecule that is present in living organisms, including large macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products.

Biomolecule

A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Types of biomolecules[edit] A diverse range of biomolecules exist, including: Monomers, oligomers and polymers: Nucleosides and nucleotides[edit] Nucleosides are molecules formed by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides.