Pacaraos Quechua. Pacaraos Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken until the middle of the 20th century in the community of Pacaraos (Pacaraos District) in the Peruvian Lima Region in the Chancay valley up to 3000 m above sea level.
The Quechua of Pacaraos was investigated by the Dutch linguist Willem F. H. Adelaar in 1970s, when it was still spoken by women in their sixties and older. Around the year 2000 there were possibly no active speakers left, but there are probably some people with passive knowledge who grew up with their grandparents. Kichwa language. Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language which includes all Quechua varieties of Ecuador and Colombia (Inga), as well as extensions into Peru, and is spoken by 2.5 million people.
The most widely spoken dialects are Chimborazo and Imbabura Highland Kichwa, with one to two million and half a million to one million speakers, respectively. Cañar Highland Quecha has 100,000–200,000 speakers; the others in the range of ten to twenty thousand. Chachapoyas Quechua. Chachapoyas or Amazonas Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken in the provinces of Chachapoyas and Luya in the Peruvian region of Amazonas.
Chachapoyas Quechua is critically endangered, as hardly any children are now learning it. Conila is said to be the last village where children are still able to speak it. Chachapoyas Quechua belongs to Quechua II, subgroup II-B (Lowland Peruvian Quechua). Bibliography Gerald Taylor, 2006. Lamas Quechua. Lamas or San Martín Quechua (Lamista, Llakwash Runashimi) is a variety of Quechua spoken in the provinces of Lamas in the Peruvian region of San Martin and in some villages on the river Huallaga in the region of Ucayali.
Lamas Quechua belongs to Quechua II, subgroup II-B (Lowland Peruvian Quechua). Bibliography Marinerell Park, Nancy Weber, Víctor Cenepo S. (1975): Diccionario Quechua de San Martín – Castellano y vice versa. Ministerio de educación del PerúGerald Taylor (2006): Diccionario Quechua Chachapoyas – Lamas – Castellano. Cusco Quechua. Cusco Quechua is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in city and the department of Cusco.
It is the Quechua variety used by the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua in Cusco, which also prefers the Spanish-based five-vowel alphabet. On the other hand, the official alphabet used by the ministry of education has only three vowels. Jump up ^ Cusco at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Eastern Apurímac at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Jump up ^ Nancy Hornberger & Kendall King, "Authenticity and Unification in Quechua Language Planning" Language, Culture and Curriculum 11 3 (1998): 390 - 410.
North Bolivian Quechua. South Bolivian Quechua. Yauyos–Chincha Quechua. Yauyos–Chincha Quechua or Yauyos Quechua is a dialect cluster of Quechua, spoken in the Yauyos and Chincha districts of Peru.
There are numerous dialects: in Yauyos, San Pedro de Huacarpana, Apurí, Madean-Viñac (Madeán), Azángaro-Huangáscar-Chocos (Huangáscar), Cacra-Hongos, Tomás-Alis (Alis), Huancaya-Vitis, Laraos, with similar diversity in Chincha. The Tana-Lincha (Lincha) dialect included by Ethnologue 16, however, is part of Cajamarca-Lambayeque Quechua. References Jump up ^ Yauyos Quechua at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Chincha Quechua at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Jump up ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). Ancash Quechua. Ancash Quechua, or Huaylay, is a Quechua variety with a number of dialects, spoken in the department of Ancash by approximately 1,000,000 people.
Like Wanka Quechua, it belongs to Quechua I (according to Alfredo Torero). References Huánuco Quechua. Adelaar, 2004.
The Languages of the Andes. Southern Quechua. Southern Quechua (Spanish: quechua sureño), or simply Quechua, is the most widely spoken of the major regional groupings of mutually intelligible dialects within the Quechua language family, with about 6.9 million speakers.
It is also the most widely spoken indigenous language in the entire New World. The term Southern Quechua refers to the forms of Quechua spoken in regions of the Andes south of a line roughly east-west between the cities of Huancayo and Huancavelica in central Peru. It includes the Quechua varieties spoken in the regions of Ayacucho, Cuzco and Puno in Peru, in much of Bolivia and parts of north-west Argentina. The most widely spoken varieties are South Bolivian, Cuzco, Ayacucho, and Puno (Collao).
Yaru Quechua. Yaru Quechua is a dialect cluster of Quechua, spoken in the Peruvian province of Pasco and neighboring areas in northern Junín and Lima department.
Pacaraos Quechua has traditionally been assigned to Quechua II, but Adelaar argues that this is due to retained features and not a genealogical relationship. Adelaar, 2004. The Languages of the Andes. Jump up ^ Ambo-Pasco at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Chaupihuaranga / Yanahuanca at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)North Junín at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Pacaraos Quechua at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)Jump up ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013).
Wanka Quechua. Wanka Quechua is a variety of the Quechua language, spoken in the southern part of Peruvian region of Junín by the Huancas. Wanka Quechua belongs to Quechua I, like Ancash Quechua. It has about 300,000 speakers and three main dialects: Waylla Wanka in Huancayo and Chupaca provinces, Waycha Wanka in Concepción and Shawsha Wanka in Jauja. Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino, a native Wanka speaker, published the first Wanka grammar and dictionary in 1977. Lambayeque Quechua. Inkawasi-Kañaris is a variety of Quechua spoken in the districts of Incahuasi and Cañaris, Ferreñafe in the Peruvian region of Lambayeque. Inkawasi-Kañaris Quechua belongs to Quechua II, subgroup Cajamarca–Cañaris (Quechua II a, Yunkay) and is closest to Cajamarca Quechua, with which it has 94% lexical similarity. References Bibliography Ronel Groenewald et al. (2002): Shumaq liyinawan yaĉakushun - Aprendamos con los cuentos bonitos.
Cajamarca Quechua. Cajamarca Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken in the districts of Chetilla, Baños del Inca and Cajamarca (Porcón) in the Peruvian province of Cajamarca. It was never spoken throughout the region, where other indigenous languages were spoken as well, e.g. Culle. Cajamarca Quechua is severely endangered, as hardly any children are now learning it.
Cajamarca Quechua belongs to Quechua II, subgroup Cajamarca–Cañaris (Quechua II a, Yunkay) and is closest to Lambayeque Quechua, with which it has 94% lexical similarity. Félix Quesada published the first grammar and dictionary in 1976. References Bibliography Félix Quesada C. (1976): Diccionario Quechua de Cajamarca–Cañaris [–Castellano y vice versa]. External links Puno Quechua. Ayacucho Quechua. Ayacucho (also called Chanca or Chanka) is a dialect of the Southern Quechua language, spoken in the Ayacucho region of Peru, as well as by immigrants from Ayacucho in Lima. With roughly a million speakers, it is the largest variety of Quechua after Cusco Quechua. The literary standard of Southern Quechua is based on these two closely related Quechua varieties. Phonology Vowels Ayacucho Quechua uses only three vowels: /a/, /i/, and /u/, which are rendered by native speakers as [æ], [ɪ], and [ʊ] respectively.
Consonants Bold type indicates orthographic representation. Notable differences from Cusco Quechua: There are no ejective stops. Ayacucho Quechua has borrowed hundreds of words from Spanish, and some speakers (even monolinguals) approximate the Spanish pronunciation. Stress Rules and Syllable Structure Quechua primary (strong) stress regularly falls the penultimate syllable (if a word has more than one syllable). Morphology Cajamarca–Cañaris Quechua. Cajamarca–Cañaris Quechua (locally called Kichwa or Runashimi, like other Quechua varieties) is a branch of Quechua spoken in northern Peru, consisting primarily of Cajamarca Quechua (Kashamarka, AKA Linwa), and Lambayeque Quechua (AKA Ferreñafe, Inkawasi-Kañaris Quechua), near the towns of Cajamarca and Cañaris in the Cajamarca and Lambayeque regions.
Cajamarca and Lambayeque Quechua have 94% lexical similarity and are mutually intelligible. Adelaar (2004) includes the dialect of Lincha District, far to the south on the border of the Lima and Huancavelica regions. Quechua languages. Quechuan /ˈkɛtʃwən/, also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language. It is the most widely spoken language family of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8 million to 10 million speakers. History: origins and divergence Quechua had already expanded across wide ranges of the central Andes long even before the Incas, who were just one among many groups who already spoke forms of Quechua across much of Peru. Quechua arrived at Cuzco and was influenced by languages like Aymara. This fact explains that the Cuzco variety was not the more widespread.
After the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, Quechua continued to see considerable usage, as the "general language" and main means of communication between the Spaniards and the indigenous population, including for the Roman Catholic Church as a language of evangelisation.