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Radical behaviorism. Radical behaviorism is "the established formal designation for B.

Radical behaviorism

F. Skinner's philosophy of the science of behavior".[1] The term radical behaviorism is also used to refer to the school of psychology known as the experimental analysis of behavior. Radical behaviorism, as a school of psychology, bears little resemblance to other schools of psychology, differing in the acceptance of mediating structures[clarification needed], the role of private events and emotions, and other areas.[2] Radical behaviorism has attracted attention since its inception.

First, it proposes that all organismic action is determined and not free. Analytical psychology. Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) is a school of psychology that originated from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung.

Analytical psychology

Analytical psychology is fundamentally distinct from the psychoanalytic school of Sigmund Freud. Its aim is a meaningful life with particular focus on personality development during the second half of life and substantive contributions to society. This is achieved via a continuous cyclical process of self-awareness, transformation, and self-actualization. These are products of constructive re-conceptualization of conscious and unconscious conflicts in an individual's life. Behaviorism. Behaviorism (or behaviourism), is the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only,[1] it is also an approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory.[2] It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to "mentalistic" psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods.


The primary tenet of behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and others, is that psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals, not with unobservable events that take place in their minds.[3] The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as thoughts and beliefs.[4] Versions[edit] Two subtypes are:

Cognitivism (psychology) In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s.

Cognitivism (psychology)

The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition. Depth psychology. Historically, depth psychology (from the German term Tiefenpsychologie), was coined by Eugen Bleuler to refer to psychoanalytic approaches to therapy and research that take the unconscious into account.

Depth psychology

The term has come to refer to the ongoing development of theories and therapies pioneered by Pierre Janet, William James, Sigmund Freud, and Carl Jung. Descriptive psychology. Descriptive psychology ("DP") is primarily a conceptual framework for the science of psychology.

Descriptive psychology

Created in its original form by Peter G. Differential psychology. Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior.

Differential psychology

This is distinguished from other aspects of psychology in that although psychology is ostensibly a study of individuals, modern psychologists often study groups or biological underpinnings of cognition. For example, in evaluating the effectiveness of a new therapy, the mean performance of the therapy in one treatment group might be compared to the mean effectiveness of a placebo (or a well-known therapy) in a second, control group.

In this context, differences between individuals in their reaction to the experimental and control manipulations are actually treated as errors rather than as interesting phenomena to study. This is because psychological research depends upon statistical controls that are only defined upon groups of people. Ecological systems theory. Ecological systems theory, also called development in context or human ecology theory, identifies five environmental systems with which an individual interacts.

Ecological systems theory

This theory provides the framework from which community psychologists study the relationships with individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society. Ecological systems theory was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. The five systems[edit] Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Ego psychology. Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind.

Ego psychology

An individual interacts with the external world as well as responds to internal forces. Many psychoanalysts use a theoretical construct called the ego to explain how that is done through various ego functions. Adherents of ego psychology focus on the ego’s normal and pathological development, its management of libidinal and aggressive impulses, and its adaptation to reality.[1] History[edit] Early conceptions of the ego[edit] Enactivism. A book reviewer, Jeremy Trevalyan Burman, in reviewing Consciousness & Emotion, vol 1.,[6] concluded:[7] However, in a review of the book Consciousness & Emotion Book Series 2 edited by Richard Menary, Evan Thompson, the book reviewer, stated the view: -Evan Thompson, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Toronto.[8]


Existential therapy. Background[edit] The starting point of existential philosophy (see Warnock, 1970; Macquarrie, 1972; Mace, 1999; Van Deurzen and Kenward, 2005) can be traced back to the nineteenth century and the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche. Both were in conflict with the predominant ideologies of their time and committed to the exploration of reality as it can be experienced in a passionate and personal manner. Kierkegaard (1813–55) protested vigorously against popular misunderstanding and abuse of Christian dogma and the so-called 'objectivity' of science (Kierkegaard, 1841, 1844). He thought that both were ways of avoiding the anxiety inherent in human existence. He had great contempt for the way in which life was being lived by those around him and believed that truth could ultimately only be discovered subjectively by the individual in action. Nietzsche (1844–1900) took this philosophy of life a step further.

Functional psychology. Functional psychology or functionalism refers to a general psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behavior in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment.[1] As such, it provides the general basis for developing psychological theories not readily testable by controlled experiments and for applied psychology. History[edit] William James is considered to be the founder of functional psychology.

Although he would not consider himself as a functionalist, nor did he truly like the way science divided itself into schools. John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, Harvey A. Carr, and especially James Rowland Angell were the main proponents of functionalism at the University of Chicago. Behaviorists also rejected the method of introspection but criticized functionalism because it was not based on controlled experiments and its theories provided little predictive ability. Contemporary descendants[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Gary R. External links[edit] Gestalt psychology. Humanistic psychology. Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B.F.

Skinner's behaviorism.[1] With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. It typically holds that people are inherently good. It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and human potential. Individual psychology. Individual psychology is a term used specifically to refer to the psychological method or science founded by the Viennese psychiatrist Alfred Adler (Fall, Holden, & Marquis, 2002). Phenomenology (psychology) The quality or nature of a given experience is often referred to by the term qualia, whose archetypical exemplar is "redness". For example, we might ask, "Is my experience of redness the same as yours? " Psychoanalysis. Structuralism.

Transactional analysis. Transactional analysis (TA to its adherents), is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy. It is described as integrative because it has elements of psychoanalytic, humanist and cognitive approaches. TA was first developed by Canadian-born US psychiatrist Eric Berne, starting in the late 1950s. Outline[edit] According to the International Transactional Analysis Association,[1] TA 'is a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change'. As a theory of personality, TA describes how people are structured psychologically.