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Psuedoscience in Medicine

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Alternative medicine. Alternative medicines may contain unsafe or toxic ingredients.

Alternative medicine

The science community is critical of alternative medicine for making unproven claims. Anthroposophic medicine. Applied kinesiology. Applied kinesiology (AK) is a technique in alternative medicine claimed to be able to diagnose illness or choose treatment by testing muscles for strength and weakness.[1] Applied kinesiologists are often chiropractors, but they may also be naturopathic physicians, physicians, nurses, physical therapists, or veterinarians.

Applied kinesiology

According to their guidelines on allergy diagnostic testing, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology stated there is “no evidence of diagnostic validity” of applied kinesiology,[2] and another study has shown that as an evaluative method, AK "is no more useful than random guessing",[3] and the American Cancer Society has said that "scientific evidence does not support the claim that applied kinesiology can diagnose or treat cancer or other illness". Applied Kinesiology, as described above, should not be confused with kinesiology, which is the scientific study of human movement. History and current use[edit] George J.

Bates method. The famed British writer Aldous Huxley, whose corneas had been scarred from the age of sixteen, learned the Bates method from Bates student Margaret Darst Corbett beginning in 1939, and in 1942 wrote his own book about the method.

Bates method

He reported that his eyesight had improved significantly, but admitted that it remained far from normal. Whether his vision had truly improved was frequently questioned.[2] The Bates method has been criticized not only because it is ineffective, but because it can have negative consequences on those who attempt to follow it: they might damage their eyes through overexposure of their eyes to sunlight, put themselves and others at risk by not wearing their corrective lenses while driving, or neglect conventional eye care, possibly allowing serious conditions to develop.[5][7] Biorhythm. This article is about the pseudoscientific theory of biorhythms.


For the scientific study of biological cycles, see Chronobiology . Biorhythm chart over the first 66-day period after birth: Physical Emotional Intellectual A biorhythm (from Greek βίος - bios, "life"[1] and ῥυθμός - rhuthmos, "any regular recurring motion, rhythm"[2]) is an attempt to predict various aspects of a person's life through simple mathematical cycles. Most scientists believe that the idea has no more predictive power than chance[3] and consider the concept an example of pseudoscience.[4][5][6][7] Theory[edit] Basic rhythm details Physical cycle23 days; Circavigintancoordinationstrengthwell-beingEmotional cycle28 days; CircatrigintancreativitysensitivitymoodperceptionawarenessIntellectual cycle33 days; Circatrigintanalertnessanalytical functioninglogical analysismemory or recallcommunication Most biorhythm models use three cycles: a 23-day physical cycle, a 28-day emotional cycle, and a 33-day intellectual cycle.

Body memory. This article is about the hypothesis of unconscious extra-cerebral memories.

Body memory

For unconscious cerebral memories, see implicit memory. Body memory is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain. This is used to explain having memories for events where the brain was not in a position to store memories and is sometimes a catalyst for repressed memory recovery. These memories are often characterised with phantom pain in a part or parts of the body – the body appearing to remember the past trauma.

Brain Gym. Brain Gym is a nonprofit organisation promoting a series of exercises claimed to improve academic performance.

Brain Gym

The 26 Brain Gym activities are claimed to foster eye teaming, spatial and listening skills, hand–eye coordination, and whole-body flexibility, and by doing this manipulate the brain, improving learning and recall of information. Numerous books have been written describing research and case studies in which use of the Brain Gym activities has benefited specific populations, including children recovering from burn injuries and those diagnosed with autism.[1] The Brain Gym activities have been incorporated into many educational, sports, business, and seniors programs throughout the world.

Chiropractic. Chiropractic is well established in the U.S., Canada and Australia.[20] It overlaps with other manual-therapy professions, including massage therapy, osteopathy, and physical therapy.[21] Back and neck pain are the specialties of chiropractic but many chiropractors treat ailments other than musculoskeletal issues.[9] Most who seek chiropractic care do so for low back pain.[22] D.D.


Palmer founded chiropractic in the 1890s, and his son B.J. Conceptual basis. Colon cleansing. This article is about the alternative medicine technique.

Colon cleansing

For the process to clean the colon before medical imaging, see Enema. Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Craniosacral therapy. According to the American Cancer Society, although CST may relieve the symptoms of stress or tension, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that craniosacral therapy helps in treating cancer or any other disease".[1] CST has been characterized as pseudoscience[3] and its practice has been called quackery.[4] Etymology[edit] The name of the therapy, either craniosacral or cranial-sacral, is based on the terms cranium and sacrum.

Craniosacral therapy

In layman's terms this means the bones at the top and bottom of the spine, the skull and the bone which connects the lowest lumbar vertebra to the two hip bones and the tailbone. History and conceptual basis[edit] Crystal healing. Quartz crystals are often used in crystal healing.

Crystal healing

Crystal healing is a pseudoscientific[1] alternative medicine technique that employs stones and crystals. Adherents of the technique claim that these have healing powers, although there is no scientific basis for this claim. One method is where the practitioner places crystals on different parts of the body, often corresponding to so-called "chakras"; or else the practitioner places crystals around the body in an attempt to construct an "energy grid", which is purported to surround the client with healing energy.[2] Despite this, scientific investigations have not validated claims that chakras or energy grids actually exist, nor is there any evidence that crystal healing has any greater effect upon the body than any other placebo.

Practices[edit] Cupping therapy. Cupping therapy is an ancient Chinese form of alternative medicine in which a local suction is created on the skin; practitioners believe this mobilizes blood flow in order to promote healing.[1] Suction is created using heat (fire) or mechanical devices (hand or electrical pumps). It is known in local languages as Meyboom,baguan/baguar, badkesh, banki, bahnkes, bekam, buhang, bentusa, kyukaku, giác hơi, Hijamah, kavaa (ކަވާ), mihceme,[2] and singhi among others. [3] Description[edit] Through either heat or suction, the skin is gently drawn upwards by creating a vacuum in a cup over the target area of the skin. The cup stays in place for five to fifteen minutes. Earthing Therapy. See also[edit] Negative air ionization therapy. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a group of symptoms purportedly caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields.[1] A more specific term used in medical literature is idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF).

Other terms for IEI-EMF include electrohypersensitivity, electro-sensitivity, and electrical sensitivity (ES). Idiopathic refers to the fact that the cause is unknown. Although the thermal effects of electromagnetic fields on the body are established, those who are self-described with electromagnetic hypersensitivity report responding to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (or electromagnetic radiation) at intensities well below the maximum levels permitted by international radiation safety standards. Faith healing. "Faith healer" redirects here. For the play by Brian Friel, see Faith Healer. Faith healing is healing purportedly through spiritual means. Believers assert that the healing of a person can be brought about by religious faith through prayer and/or rituals that, according to adherents, stimulate a divine presence and power toward healing disease and disability.

Belief in divine intervention in illness or healing is related to religious belief.[1] In common usage, faith healing refers to notably overt and ritualistic practices of communal prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are claimed to solicit divine intervention in initiating spiritual and literal healing. Claims that prayer, divine intervention, or the ministrations of an individual healer can cure illness have been popular throughout history.[2] Miraculous recoveries have been attributed to many techniques commonly lumped together as "faith healing". Homeopathy. Homeopathy ( i/ˌhoʊmiˈɒpəθi/; also spelled homoeopathy; from the Greek: ὅμοιος hómoios, "-like" and πάθος páthos, "suffering") is a system of alternative medicine created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann based on his doctrine of like cures like, whereby a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people will cure similar symptoms in sick people.[1] Homeopathy is considered a pseudoscience.[2][3][4] Homeopathy is not effective for any condition, and no remedy has been proven to be more effective than placebo.[5][6][7] Hahnemann believed the underlying causes of disease were phenomena that he termed miasms, and that homeopathic remedies addressed these.

The British House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has stated: "In our view, the systematic reviews and meta-analyses conclusively demonstrate that homeopathic products perform no better than placebos. The Government shares our interpretation of the evidence. Innate intelligence. Ionized jewelry. Ionized bracelets, or ionic bracelets, are a type of metal jewelry purported to affect the chi of the wearer. Iridology. Iridologists believe they can use the charts to distinguish between healthy systems and organs in the body and those that are overactive, inflamed, or distressed. Iridologists believe this information demonstrates a patient's susceptibility towards certain illnesses, reflects past medical problems, or predicts later health problems.

As opposed to evidence-based medicine, iridology is not supported by quality research studies[3] and is widely considered pseudoscience.[4] The features of the iris are one of the most stable features on the human body throughout life.[5] The stability of iris structures is the foundation of the biometric technology which uses iris recognition for identification purposes.[6][7] Leaky gut syndrome. This article is about a proposed medical condition in alternative medicine. For the phenomenon whereby the intestine wall exhibits permeability (Leaky Gut), see Intestinal permeability. The Lightning Process. Magnet therapy. Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health.

Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques. Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques (NAET) are a form of alternative medicine by which practitioners claim to be able to diagnose and treat allergies and supposedly related disorders. Naturopathy. Osteopathic manipulative medicine. Radionics. Reflexology. Therapeutic touch. Traditional Chinese medicine. Urine therapy.

Vertebral subluxation. Vitalism.