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Prehistory of Turkey

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Prehistory of Anatolia. Ancient Anatolians. The Anatolians were a group of distinct Indo-European peoples who spoke the Anatolian languages and shared a common culture.[1][2][3][4][5] The Anatolian languages were a branch of the larger Indo-European language family.

Ancient Anatolians

History[edit] List of Anatolian peoples[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Sources[edit] Ancient Regions of Anatolia. This is a list of regions of Ancient Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor).

Ancient Regions of Anatolia

Paleolithic Turkey. Neolithic Turkey. Anatolian hypothesis. Early to middle bronze age Turkey. Middle Bronze Age migrations (Ancient Near East) Migrations in Anatolia around 1900 BCE.

Middle Bronze Age migrations (Ancient Near East)

According to Drews and Mellart the Hittite migration displaced other peoples living in Anatolia, who in turn displaced the Middle Helladic Greek-speaking peoples to the west.[1][2] This is contradicted by newer research.[3] Middle bronze age in Turkey. Assyria. Overview map of the Ancient Near East in the 15th century BC (Middle Assyrian period), showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream (to the south-east) and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream (to the north-west).


Assyria was a major Semitic kingdom, and often empire, of the Ancient Near East, existing as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries from c. 2500 BC to 605 BC, spanning the Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. For a further thirteen centuries, from the end of the 7th century BC to the mid-7th century AD, it survived as a geo-political entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although a number of small Neo-Assyrian states arose at different times throughout this period.

Centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia(Iraq), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Names[edit] Hattians. The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti (present-day central Anatolia, Turkey).


The group was documented at least as early as the empire of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2300 BC),[1] until it was gradually absorbed c.2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites, who became identified with the "land of Hatti". History[edit] The use of the word "Proto-Hittite" to refer to Hattians is inaccurate. Hittite (Nesili= from the city Nesa/Kanesh) is an Indo-European language, linguistically distinct from the Hattians.

The Hittites continued to use the term Land of Hatti for their new kingdom.The Hattians eventually merged with people who spoke Indo-European languages like Hittite, Luwian and Palaic. Approximate extent of Hittite rule, c. 1350-1300 BC, with Arzawa rule and Lukkans to the west, Mitanni rule to the South-East. The Hattians were organised in city-states and small kingdoms or principalities.

Late bronze age in Turkey

Iron age in Turkey. Maeonia and the Lydian kingdom. File:15th century map of Turkey region.jpg. Lydia. Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Greek: Λυδία, Turkish: Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.


Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian. Lydia was later the name of a Roman province. Coins are said to have been invented in Lydia[2] around the 7th century BC. Defining Lydia[edit] Thracians. Thracian peltast, 5th–4th century BC.


The Thracians (Ancient Greek: Θρᾷκες Thrāikes, Latin: Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Central and Southeastern Europe.[1] They were bordered by the Scythians to the north, the Celts and the Illyrians to the west, the Ancient Greeks to the south and the Black Sea to the east. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. The study of Thracians and Thracian culture is known as Thracology. Etymology[edit] The first historical record about the Thracians is found in the Iliad, where they are described as allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War against the Greeks.[2] The ethnonym Thracian comes from Ancient Greek Θρᾷξ (plural Θρᾷκες; Thrāix, Thrāikes) or Θρᾴκιος/Ionic: Θρηίκιος (Thrāikios/Thrēikios), and the toponym Thrace comes from Θρᾴκη/Ion.: Θρῄκη (Thrāikē/Thrēikē).[3] These forms are all exonyms as applied by the Greeks.[4] Mythological foundation[edit]

Prehistory of eastern Thrace. Prehistory of the Balkans. For the history of Earth before the occupation by the genus homo, including the period of early hominins, see Geology of Europe and Human evolution.

Prehistory of the Balkans

Southeastern European cultures during the Neolithic The prehistory of Southeastern Europe , defined roughly as the territory of the wider Balkans peninsula (including the territories of the modern countries of Albania, Kosovo, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Bosnia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Turkey) covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic, beginning with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area some 44,000 years ago, until the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity, in Greece as early as the 8th century BC.

Human prehistory in Southeastern Europe is conventionally divided into smaller periods, such as Upper Paleolithic, Holocene Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic, Neolithic Revolution, expansion of Proto-Indo-Europeans, and Protohistory. The changes between these are gradual. Paleolithic Europe. Paleolithic Europe refers to the Paleolithic period of Europe, a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the first stone tools and which covers roughly 99% of human technological history.[1] It extends from the introduction of stone tools by hominids 1.8 million years ago, to the introduction of agriculture and the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 BP.[1][2][3] It is believed that Homo erectus evolved into Homo heidelbergensis and subsequently Homo neanderthalensis in Paleolithic Europe, before being replaced by modern humans migrating out of Africa approximately 50,000 years ago.

Paleolithic Europe

The bones of the earliest Europeans are found in Dmanisi, Georgia, and are 1.8 million years old. The oldest evidence of human occupation in Eastern Europe comes from the Kozarnika cave in Bulgaria where a single human tooth and flint artifacts have been dated to at least 1.4 million years ago. Paleolithic[edit] Lower Paleolithic : 1.8 mya - 300,000 BP[edit] Neolithic Europe. A map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC, including the Cardium Culture in blue.

Neolithic Europe

Europe in ca. 4500-4000 BC. Neolithic Europe refers to a prehistoric period in which Neolithic technology was present in Europe.