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Post independence (1980-)

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During the elections of February 1980, Robert Mugabe and his ZANU secured a landslide victory.[39] Opposition to what was perceived as a Shona takeover immediately erupted around Matabeleland.

The Matabele unrest led to what has become known as 'Gukurahundi' (Shona: "the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains")[40] or the Matabeleland Massacres, which lasted from 1982 until 1985. It has been estimated that at least 20,000 Matabele were murdered and tens of thousands of others were tortured in military internment camps.[41] The slaughter only ended after Nkomo and Mugabe reached a unity agreement in 1988 that merged their respective parties, creating the Zimbabwe African Union-Patriotic Front.[42][43] Zimbabwean elections in March 1990 resulted in another victory for Mugabe and his party, which claimed 117 of the 120 contested seats. Observers found the campaign to be "neither free nor fair".[44][45] During the 1990s, students, trade unionists, and workers often demonstrated to express their growing discontent with increasingly despotic Mugabe rule. In 1996, civil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues.[46][47] The general health of the civilian population also began to significantly founder. By 1997 an estimated 25% of the population of Zimbabwe had been infected by HIV.[48] Land issues re-emerged as the main issue for the ruling party around 1997. Despite the existence of a "willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the 1980s, white Zimbabweans continued to hold about 70% of the most arable land.[49] Robert Mugabe began to forcibly redistribute this land to his associates in 2000. Mandatory confiscation of white farmland was affected by continuous droughts, as well as a serious lacking in inputs and finance, leading to a sharp decline in agricultural exports, which was traditionally the country's leading export-producing sector.[50] Some 58,000 independent black farmers have since experienced limited success in reviving the gutted cash crop sectors through efforts on a smaller scale.[51] Map showing the food insecurity in Zimbabwe in June 2008 Charged with committing numerous human rights abuses and running the economy of his own nation into the ground, Mugabe found himself beset with a wide range of sanctions.[52][53] In 2002, the nation was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations due to the reckless farm seizures and blatant election tampering.[54] The following year, Zimbabwean officials voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth membership.[55] Following fraudulent elections in 2005, the government initiated "Operation Murambatsvina", an effort to crack down on illegal markets and slums emerging in towns and cities, leaving a substantial section of urban poor homeless.[56] The Zimbabwean government has described the operation as an attempt to provide decent housing to the population, although authorities have yet to properly substantiate their claims.[57] On 29 March 2008, Zimbabwe held a presidential election along with a parliamentary election. The results of this election were withheld for two weeks, after which it was generally acknowledged that the Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC-T) had achieved a majority of one seat in the lower house of parliament. In late 2008, problems in Zimbabwe reached crisis proportions in the areas of living standards, public health (with a major cholera outbreak in December) and various basic affairs.[58] In September 2008, a power-sharing agreement was reached between Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the office of prime minister. Due to ministerial differences between their respective political parties, the agreement was not fully implemented until 13 February 2009. By December 2010, Mugabe was threatening to completely expropriate remaining privately owned companies in Zimbabwe unless "western sanctions" were lifted.[59] A 2011 survey by Freedom House suggests that living conditions have improved since the power-sharing agreement.[60] The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs states in its 2012–2013 planning document that the "humanitarian situation has improved in Zimbabwe since 2009, but conditions remain precarious for many people".[61] On 17 January 2013, the Vice-President John Nkomo died of cancer at St Anne's Hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe at the age of 78.[62] A new constitution approved in the Zimbabwean constitutional referendum, 2013 curtails presidential powers and will lead to an election to decide whether Robert Mugabe extends his three-decade rule.[63]

The economy in Zimbabwe in the '80s and '90s. Independence and the 1980s. Economic history of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe's GDP annual percentage growth rate from 1961 to 2010.[1]

Economic history of Zimbabwe

The 1990s. File:Food insecurity in Zimbabwe.svg. Cancel Edit Delete Preview revert Text of the note (may include Wiki markup) Could not save your note (edit conflict or other problem).

File:Food insecurity in Zimbabwe.svg

Gukurahundi. The Gukurahundi (Shona: "the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains"[1]) was the brutal suppression of Zimbabwean civilians, mostly supporters of Joshua Nkomo, by Zimbabwe's 5th Brigade in the predominantly Ndebele regions of Zimbabwe.

Gukurahundi

A few hundred disgruntled former Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) combatants waged armed banditry against the civilians in Matabeleland, and destroyed government installations.[2] The North-Korean-trained Fifth Brigade executed an estimated 20,000 civilians. Land reform in Zimbabwe. Land reform in Zimbabwe officially began in 1979 with the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement, an effort to more equitably distribute land between the historically disenfranchised blacks and the minority-whites who ruled Southern Rhodesia from 1890 to 1979.

Land reform in Zimbabwe

The government's land distribution is perhaps the most crucial and most bitterly contested political issue surrounding Zimbabwe. It can be divided into two periods: from 1979 to 2000, where a principle of willing buyer, willing seller was applied with economic help from Great Britain and secondly, beginning in 2000, the fast-track land reform program. 1999-2000. 2002. 2003-2005. 2006-2007. Deterioration of the education system.

2008–09 Zimbabwean political negotiations. Leaders in the Zimbabwean Political Negotiations Preliminary talks to set up conditions for official negotiations began between leading negotiators from both parties on 10 July, and on 22 July, the three party leaders met for the first time in Harare to express their support for a negotiated settlement of disputes arising out of the presidential and parliamentary elections.

2008–09 Zimbabwean political negotiations

2008 presidential elections. Marange diamond fields massacre. Zimbabwean presidential election, 2008. The Republic of Zimbabwe held a presidential election along with a parliamentary election on 29 March 2008.[1] The three major candidates were incumbent President Robert Mugabe of the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Morgan Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), and Simba Makoni, an independent.[2] As no candidate received an outright majority in the first round, a second round was held on 27 June 2008 between Tsvangirai (with 48% of the first round vote) and Mugabe (43%).

Zimbabwean presidential election, 2008

Tsvangirai withdrew from the second round a week before it was scheduled to take place, citing violence against his party's supporters. The second round went ahead, despite widespread condemnation, and led to victory for Mugabe. Because of Zimbabwe's dire economic situation, the election was expected to provide President Mugabe with his toughest electoral challenge to date. 2009.