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Positive buying: Certifiable goods and services

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Positive buying means favoring ethical products, be they fair trade, cruelty free, organic, recycled, re-used, or produced locally. This option is arguably the most important since it directly supports progressive companies.

B Corporation (certification) As of March 2014, there are 990 "certified B Corporations" across 60 industries in 27 countries.[2] Example of a B Corp certification label The B-Lab certification is a third party standard requiring companies to meet social sustainability and environmental performance standards, meet accountability standards, and to be transparent to the public according to the score they receive on the assessment.

B-Lab certification applies to the whole company across all product lines and issue areas. For-profits of all legal business structures are eligible for certification. To obtain a B Corporation certification, a company first completes an online assessment. Currently the B Corp assessment is its third version, with the fourth version scheduled to be released in January 2014.[16] However, B-Lab certification allows the company bylaws to remain secret. André, Rae (2012). EKOenergy. EKOenergy label is an international ecolabel for electricity. It is managed by a network of European environmental NGOs. The secretariat is located in Helsinki and hosted by the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation (FANC).[1] The main goal the ecolabel is to increase the sustainability of energy consumption, as well as raising awareness ofthe environmental issues related to the production of energy.[2] History[edit] Alongside Swedish Bra Miljöval, the Finnish Norppaenergia was the first ecolabel for electricity in the world.

FANC, the biggest environmental NGO in Finland had operated the Norppaenergia label since 1998.[3] In May 2010 FANC announced its intention to create an international ecolabel for electricity.[4] Bellona Russia, the Estonian Fund for Nature, the Latvian Fund for Nature, Ecoserveis and AccioNatura from Spain as well as 100% energia verde and REEF from Italy joined the project soon. EKOenergy criteria[edit] EKOenergy sets criteria for: References[edit] EKOenergy. Equal Exchange. Equal Exchange is a for-profit Fairtrade worker-owned, cooperative headquartered in West Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Equal Exchange distributes organic, gourmet coffee, tea, sugar, bananas, avocados, cocoa, and chocolate bars produced by farmer cooperatives in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Founded in 1986, it is the oldest and largest Fair Trade coffee company in the United States. The highest paid employee of Equal Exchange may not make more than four times what the lowest paid employee receives.[1] Equal Exchange is currently[when?]

Collaborating with cranberry, pecan, and almond farmers in the United States. See also[edit] List of bean-to-bar chocolate manufacturers References[edit] Jump up ^ Equal Exchange: About Our Co-op External links[edit] Official website. Ethical Consumer. Ethical Consumer is a not-for-profit UK magazine and website which publishes information on the social, ethical and environmental behaviour of companies and issues around trade justice and ethical consumerism. It was founded in 1989 by Rob Harrison and Jane Turner.[1][2] Mission[edit] The mission of Ethical Consumer is to "promote universal human rights, environmental sustainability, and animal welfare" by informing consumers and campaigners.

[citation needed] History[edit] Ethical Consumer magazine and its associated websites are produced by the Ethical Consumer Research Association (ECRA). Company ratings[edit] Ethical Consumer publishes a company ratings tables which rate various products across 19 criteria.[4] The data behind the ratings tables is produced by research into the social, ethical and environmental records of companies, using media reporting, NGO reports, corporate communications and primary research. Other activities[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Fairtrade certification. In 2009, Fairtrade certified sales amounted to approximately €3.4 billion (US $4.9 billion) worldwide, a 15% increase from 2008.[2] Sales are further expected to grow significantly in the coming years: according to the 2005 Just-Food Global Market Review, Fairtrade sales should reach US$ 9 billion in 2012 and US$ 20-25 billion by 2020.[3] The Fairtrade industry does not reveal how much of this is extra profit to retailers and distributors in rich countries, how much is spent on Fairtrade’s own costs or how much reaches the farmer.

As of 2011, 827 producer organizations in 58 developing countries were Fairtrade certified.[2] How it works[edit] With Fairtrade coffee, and for instance, packers in developed countries pay a fee to The Fairtrade Foundation for the right to use the brand and logo, and nearly all the fee goes on marketing. Packers and retailers can charge as much as they want for the coffee. Fairtrade Standards[edit] A T-shirt made from Fairtrade certified cotton. History[edit] Forest Stewardship Council. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international not for-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world’s forests. Its main tools for achieving this are standard setting, certification and labeling of forest products.

The organization aims to "provide businesses and consumers with a [...] tool to influence how forests worldwide are managed. "[1] Purpose[edit] According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, half of the world’s forests have already been altered, degraded, destroyed or converted into other land uses.[2] Much of the remaining forests today suffer from illegal exploitation and otherwise poor management. FSC is a global forest certification system established for forests and forest products. FSC is an international association of members. History[edit] In the lead up to the Earth Summit, social groups, NGOs and industries were also beginning to consult on the issue of deforestation.

Free range. Commercial free range hens A small flock of mixed free-range chickens being fed outdoors. Free range denotes a method of farming husbandry where the animals, for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors, rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24-hours each day.[1] On many farms, the outdoors ranging area is fenced, thereby technically making this an enclosure, however, free range systems usually offer the opportunity for extensive locomotion and sunlight prevented by indoor housing systems. Free range may apply to meat, eggs or dairy farming. The term is used in two senses that do not overlap completely: as a farmer-centric description of husbandry methods, and as a consumer-centric description of them. There is a diet where the practitioner only eats meat from free-range sources called ethical omnivorism, which is a type of semivegetarian.

In ranching, free-range livestock are permitted to roam without being fenced in, as opposed to fenced-in pastures. History[edit] Grass-fed beef. Green America. Green America (originally known as Co-op America until January 1, 2009) is a nonprofit membership organization based in the United States that promotes ethical consumerism. Founded in 1982, by Paul Freundlich, it is dedicated to harnessing the economic power of consumers, investors and businesses to promote social justice and environmental sustainability through helping responsible consumers and green businesses find each other in the marketplace. Businesses displaying the Green America Seal of Approval have successfully completed Green America's screening process and have been approved to be listed as a socially and environmentally responsible — or green — businesses in their National Green Pages directory.

The Green America Approved seal is given to applicant businesses that operate in ways that support workers, communities, and protect the environment. Programs[edit] Co-op America had its roots in the cooperative, communities, environmental and social justice movements of the '70s. Halal. For disambiguation of alternate spelling, see Hallal Ḥalāl (Arabic: حلال‎ ḥalāl, 'permissible') or hallal[1] is any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law. The term covers and designates not only food and drink but also all matters of daily life.[2] The opposite of this word is haraam. Generally in Islam, every object and action is considered permissible unless there is a prohibition of it in the Islamic scriptures.[2][3][4] Clarification is given below in detail as to what is considered to be a permissible object or action in Islam, along with the exceptions.

Food[edit] Halal foods are foods that Muslims are allowed to eat or drink under Islamic Shariʻah. The criteria specify both what foods are allowed, and how the food must be prepared. The foods addressed are mostly types of meat and animal tissue. The most common example of non-halal (or haraam) food is pork. The food must come from a supplier that uses halal practices. Sex[edit] Kashrut. Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, כַּשְׁרוּת) is the set of Jewish religious dietary laws. Food that may be consumed according to halakha (Jewish law) is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér (כָּשֵׁר), meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for consumption). Among the numerous laws that form part of kashrut are the prohibitions on the consumption of unclean animals (such as pork, shellfish (both Mollusca and Crustacea) and most insects, with the exception of certain species of kosher locusts), mixtures of meat and milk, and the commandment to slaughter mammals and birds according to a process known as shechita.

There are also laws regarding agricultural produce that might impact on the suitability of food for consumption. Most of the basic laws of kashrut are derived from the Torah's Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Explanations[edit] Philosophical explanations[edit] According to Christian theologian Gordon J. Health explanations[edit] Local food. Local food or the local food movement is a "collaborative effort to build more locally based, self-reliant food economies - one in which sustainable food production, processing, distribution, and consumption is integrated to enhance the economic, environmental and social health of a particular place. "[1] It is not solely a geographical concept. A United States Department of Agriculture publication explains local food as "related to the distance between food producers and consumers," as well as "defined in terms of social and supply chain characteristics.

Local food systems[edit] Local food system diagram Food system refers to how food is produced, reaches consumers, and consumer food choices. The local food system represents an alternative to the global food model, a model that increases the separation between the producer and consumer via the middleman(e.g. processors/manufacturers, shippers, and retailers). Definitions of "local"[edit] Contemporary local food market[edit] Criticism[edit]

Made in USA. The Made in USA mark is a country of origin label indicating the product is "all or virtually all" made in the United States. The label is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). In general, goods imported into the United States must have a country of origin label unless excepted, but goods manufactured in the United States can be sold without any sort of "Made in the USA" label unless explicitly required. Requirements to label domestic content include automobiles and textile, wool, and fur products. Any voluntary claims made about the amount of U.S. content in other products must comply with the FTC’s Made in USA policy. A Made in USA claim can be expressed (for example, "American-made") or implied. In 1996 the FTC[1] proposed that the requirement be stated as: However, this was just a proposal and never became part of the final guidelines which were published in the Federal Register[3] in 1997.

Matchbox Assembled in USA[edit] Regulation[edit] Customs fraud[edit] Examples[edit] Marine Stewardship Council. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization which sets a standard for sustainable fishing. Fisheries that wish to demonstrate they are well managed and sustainable compared to the science-based MSC standard are assessed by a team of experts who are independent of both the fishery and the MSC. Seafood products can display the blue MSC ecolabel only if that seafood can be traced back through the supply chain to a fishery that has been certified against the MSC standard.[2] The MSC’s mission is to use its ecolabel and fishery certification program to contribute to the health of the world’s oceans by recognising and rewarding sustainable fishing practises, influencing the choices people make when buying seafood, and working with partners to transform the seafood market to a sustainable basis.[3] How the MSC contributes to changes on the ocean[edit] Environmental benefits of MSC certification[edit] Key facts and figures[edit] Principle 3: Effective management.

Organic food. Organic vegetables at a farmers' market in Argentina Organic foods are produced using methods of organic farming. Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these regulations, organic food is food produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by national governments and international organizations. Organic food production is a heavily regulated industry, distinct from private gardening. While the "organic" standard is defined differently in different jurisdictions, in general organic farming responds to site-specific farming and crop conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.

Meaning and origin of the term[edit] Members of Toronto's karma co-op share food and play music Taste[edit] Organic Trade Association. The Organic Trade Association (OTA) is a membership-based business association that focuses on the organic business community in North America. OTA's mission is to promote ethical consumerism, promoting and protecting the growth of organic trade to benefit the environment, farmers, the public and the economy.

OTA is a member of The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) and The International Working Group on Global Organic Textile Standard.[1] Criticism[edit] The OTA has been widely criticized for being an agent of big business interests working to undermine the credibility of the organic movement. The OTA Rider attached to the Agriculture Appropriations Act, which the USDA approved, and passed before Congress in 2006, opened the door for non-organic, non-agricultural, and synthetic additives in food products bearing the "organic" label. The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) derided the OTA’s “sneak attack.” See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Product Red. Rainforest Alliance. Recycling.

Shade-grown coffee. Veganism.