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Politics of Romania

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Politics of Romania. Politics of Romania take place in a framework of a semi-presidential parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Romania is the head of government and the President of Romania exercises the functions of head of state.

Politics of Romania

Romania has a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Romania's 1991 constitution, amended in 2003 proclaims Romania a democratic and social republic, deriving its sovereignty from the people. The constitution provides for a President, a Parliament, a Constitutional Court and a separate system of lower courts that includes The High Court of Cassation and Justice. Government of Romania. History[edit] Overview[edit] Investiture[edit] The procedure of investing a new Government is initiated by the President, who designates a candidate to the office of Prime Minister after consulting the party which holds a majority of seats in Parliament.

Government of Romania

If no such majority exists, the President consults all the parties represented in Parliament. Once nominated, the candidate establishes a list of members and a government platform; this is to be done in 10 days. Administrative divisions of Romania. Romania's administration is relatively centralised and administrative subdivisions are therefore fairly simplified.

Administrative divisions of Romania

According to the Constitution of Romania, its territory is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties:[1] At the county level: 41 counties, and one city with special status (Bucharest, the national capital)At the town/commune level: 103 municipalities and 217 other cities (for urban areas), and 2856 communes (for rural areas).[2] Municipality (municipiu) status is accorded to larger towns, but it does not give their administrations any greater powers. Below communal or town level, there are no further formal administrative subdivisions. However, communes are divided into villages (which have no administration of their own).

There are 12,955 villages in Romania. Administrative divisions. Metropolitan areas in Romania. There are 10 metropolitan areas in Romania that have been constituted or are planned to be constituted in the near future.

Metropolitan areas in Romania

Legislative status[edit] The current legislation in Romania regulates the status of the 265 cities according to their population and regional importance: Legislation also restricts the possibility to engage into a metropolitan area project to only those cities that are of rank 0 or I.[1] Here is a list of the municipalities that as of 2007 can for metropolitan areas around them with approximate populations.[2] Only three zones have been officially constituted by the end of 2007: Oradea, Iasi and Constanta.[3] At least 9 others are at the level of project. Constituted metropolitan zones[edit] Metropolitan zones in project[edit] Bucharest Metropolitan Area[14] – Today it has a population of about 2.2 million and is only slightly larger than the city proper.

Municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants[edit] List of cities and towns in Romania. This is a list of cities and towns in Romania, ordered by population according to the 2011 and 2002 censuses.[1] For the major cities, average altitude is also given.

List of cities and towns in Romania

Cities in bold are county capitals. Law of Romania. The civil code came into force on 1 December 1865, ceased to be in force in 1944, and has since been brought back into force, in an amended form.

Law of Romania

It was published, in its amended form, in 1993 under the title Codul Civil.[1] Criminal law in Romania is dictated by the Penal Code of Romania. References[edit] Pries, Anne. In Winterton and Moys (eds). Foreign relations of Romania. Diplomatic missions of Romania Relations by region and country[edit] Europe: European Union[edit] Romania joined the European Union (EU) on January 1, 2007.

Foreign relations of Romania

Romania also declared its public support for Turkey and Croatia joining the European Union. Romania shares a privileged economic relation with Turkey. Europe: European Free Trade Association (EFTA)[edit] Europe: Central European Free Trade Association (CEFTA)[edit] Europe: Eastern Europe (some part of EurAsEC)[edit] Europe: Mediterranean microstates[edit] Asia: Caucasus[edit] Asia: Middle East[edit] Foreign relations. Romanian Armed Forces. 90,000 men and women currently comprise the Armed Forces, 75,000 of them being military personnel and the other 15,000 civilians.

Romanian Armed Forces

Out of the 90,000 military and civilian personnel, 60,000 are the active troops (forţele active) while 30,000 comprise the active territorial reserves (forţele teritoriale).[5] As of 2010, the Land Forces have a reported strength of 43,000, the Air Force 9,700, the Naval Forces 7,150, and Joint Forces 13,500.[6] As per the 2011 White Paper, these forces are to be gradually decreased over the 2011-2014 period to reach a total of cca. 65,000 active troops and active reserves. Budget[edit] Total defence spending currently accounts for 1.33% of total national GDP, which represents approximately 1.78 billion euros (ranked 54th).[7] Equipment[edit] The Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in recent years, and are today a modern army with multiple NATO capabilities.

Manpower[edit] Romanian soldiers on patrol in Afghanistan Romania joined NATO in 2004. Other ranks. Military history of Romania. Romanian troops taking Grivica Strongpoint during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

Military history of Romania

Armed forces. Romanian Air Force. The Romanian Air Force (Romanian: Forţele Aeriene Române) is the air force branch of the Romanian Armed Forces.

Romanian Air Force

It has an air force headquarters, an operational command, four air bases and an air defense brigade. Reserve forces include two air bases and three airfields.