Government of Madagascar. Politics of Madagascar. Political history During the 16 subsequent years of President Ratsiraka's rule, Madagascar continued under a government committed to revolutionary socialism based on the 1975 Constitution establishing a highly centralized state.
During this period a strategy of nationalization of private enterprises, centralization of the economy and "Malgasization" of the education system crippled the economy, leaving traces even today of a highly centralized economic system and a high level of illiteracy. National elections in 1982 and 1989 returned Ratsiraka for a second and third 7-year presidential term.
For much of this period, only limited and restrained political opposition was tolerated, with no direct criticism of the president permitted in the press. With an easing of restrictions on political expression, beginning in the late 1980s, the Ratsiraka regime came under increasing pressure to make fundamental changes.
Executive branch Legislative branch Politics. Regions of Madagascar. Provinces of Madagascar. Madagascar was divided into six "autonomous provinces" (faritany mizakatena): The provinces were dissolved as a result of the new regional subdivision and the constitutional referendum of 2007.
There was a time frame of thirty months (until October 2009) for the transition. But in the new constitution, adopted in 2010, six autonomous provinces are listed again. History The provinces were created in 1946, when Madagascar was a French colony. The new constitution of 1992 stated that the country should be divided into decentralised territorial entities, without going into detail. After former president Didier Ratsiraka was re-elected in 1997, he 1998 introduced a revised constitution in which the still existing provinces were transformed to "autonomous provinces". When Ravalomanana had secured the position as president of the republic, the provincial governors were replaced with PDS'es (Presidents by special delegation), who are still in place.
See also Regions. Foreign relations of Madagascar. Regional Relations Madagascar historically has remained outside the mainstream of African affairs, although it is a member of the Indian Ocean Commission, the Organization of African Unity (now renamed the AU) and the Non-Aligned Movement.
Madagascar was admitted to the Southern African Development Community in 2004. Other Significant Relations Active diplomatic relationships are maintained with Europe, especially the UK, France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland, as well as with Russia, Japan, India, Indonesia, Egypt and China. Madagascar also maintains good relations with the United States. India India has had maritime links with Madagascar for several centuries. India opened a Consulate General in Antananarivo in 1954. Human rights in Madagascar. Human rights in Madagascar are protected under the country's constitution.
However the extent to which such rights are reflected in practice, is subject to debate. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted concerns regarding the suspension of democratic electoral processes as the result of recent political unrest. Furthermore, reports of corruption, arbitrary arrest and child labor highlight the prevalence of human rights issues in the country. Military of Madagascar.
The Military of Madagascar is made up of the People's Armed Forces and the National Gendarmerie.
The IISS detailed the armed forces in 2012 as including an Army of 12,500+, a Navy of 500, and a 500-strong Air Force. An alternate report (seemingly from CIA World Factbook data) describes the People's Armed Forces as consisting of the Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force, which is the navy and air force. The armed forces were involved in the 2009 Malagasy political crisis. During World War II, Malagasy troops fought in France, Morocco, and Syria. History MiG-17 of the Malagasy Air Force. The rise of centralized kingdoms among the Sakalava, Merina and other ethnic groups produced the island's first standing armies, first equipped with spears, but later with muskets, cannons and other firearms. Madagascar regained political independence and sovereignty over its military in 1960. Equipment Tanks 12 PT-76 light tanks Armored cars and APCs